Bankruptcy Advisory: What Can Oil Pipelines Do As Shipper Bankruptcy Risk Increases?

By Filiberto Agusti, Caroline H.B. Gaudet, and Steven Reed, Steptoe & Johnson LLP

The expansion of North American petroleum production in the past 15 years triggered the construction of many pipelines. Construction was financed largely through long-term Transportation Services Agreements (TSAs) whereby shippers committed to transport minimum volumes on the pipelines at specified tariff rates or make shortfall payments. The recent sharp drop in the world price of crude oil has led to bankruptcies. This article reviews whether, in shipper reorganizations, bankruptcy courts have jurisdiction to approve the rejection of TSAs for which the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”) has approved the tariff rate structure.

No court has yet addressed this question, but there is guidance from cases addressing rejection of FERC-jurisdictional electric power agreements. The Fifth Circuit found that bankruptcy courts have jurisdiction to approve rejection where the reorganized debtor’s business purpose is to abandon the FERC-approved service altogether. In dicta, however, the Court noted that the bankruptcy court would have lacked jurisdiction to approve assumption of a modified contract without prior FERC approval of the modification. And in In re Calpine, the Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York held that it lacked jurisdiction to approve rejection of a FERC-jurisdictional electric power agreement if the business purpose of the rejection was to obtain more favorable pricing for the estate. From a FERC standpoint, it is unclear whether a pipeline and a debtor shipper can modify a TSA to reduce pricing as a requirement for assumption.

The linchpin of FERC’s acceptance of specified TSA rates is that those rates must be offered through an “open season” to all potential shippers. A FERC proceeding may be necessary to clarify whether a pipeline has discretion to modify the TSA of a debtor shipper or if a post-open season modification reducing the shipper’s specified TSA rates would violate FERC’s non-discrimination requirements.

The full article is available here.

Developing a New Resolution Regime for Failed Systemically Important Financial Institutions

Stephanie Massman, J.D. 2015, Harvard Law School

 

In the wake of the 2007-2008 financial crisis, criticism surrounded not only the government bailouts, but also the decision to not bail out Lehman Brothers, which led to its lengthy and value-destructive chapter 11 bankruptcy. In response to this criticism, Congress enacted the Orderly Liquidation Authority (“OLA”), a regulatory alternative to bankruptcy for systemically important financial institutions (“SIFIs”), included as Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. The OLA, although perceived to be a radical departure from traditional bankruptcy, incorporates many familiar resolution principles. The most significant departures from the Bankruptcy Code are those designed to ensure financial stability in the national and global economies in the event of a SIFI failure; because the Bankruptcy Code does not currently specifically provide for a SIFI failure, it does not address financial stability concerns at all. Furthermore, by banning future government bailouts and imposing new stays on qualified financial contracts, the OLA also seeks to correct skewed market discipline incentives surrounding SIFIs—including those arising due to the “Too Big To Fail” subsidy—which may have caused the “moral hazard” problems that were a contributing factor in the financial crisis. Unfortunately, the prescribed tactics for accomplishing a resolution under the OLA may in fact implicate new moral hazard concerns, which have yet to be addressed by regulators. What further remains to be seen is both the extent to which the regulatory agencies will assume their new statutorily ordained authority to regulate these SIFIs and the extent to which the market will find their regulations credible.

This article examines the current state of development of a resolution process for SIFIs under the OLA and evaluates how effective the OLA is likely to be in preserving financial stability and minimizing moral hazard.

To view the full article, click here.

The Effect of Executive Compensation on Recoveries

posted in: Valuation | 0

By Andrea Pawliczek, Leeds School of Business, University of Colorado – Boulder

 

The structure of executive compensation will influence an executive’s behavior. For debt holders, this influence becomes especially important when a firm nears bankruptcy because this is when the debt holders’ value is at risk.

 

Consider the actions of an executive of a financially distressed firm depending on his compensation. As bankruptcy becomes likely, an executive with only equity compensation (i.e. stock and options) is likely to gamble for solvency as his wealth is entirely dependent on the firm’s stock price. For example, RadioShack, whose CEO had no debt-like compensation, undertook such a strategy, purchasing a 2014 Super Bowl ad for $4 million when the company was already in significant financial distress. Although the ad was popular and resulted in a 12% jump in the firm’s stock price the next morning, it did not help the fortunes of the company, which declared bankruptcy just over a year later on February 15, 2015.  Alternatively, an executive with debt-like compensation (e.g., pensions and deferred compensation) does not lose everything in the case of bankruptcy. This executive would have incentives to preserve firm value (i.e. assets that have value in liquidation or more value to the reorganized firm) to generate higher recoveries for himself and other debt holders in the event of bankruptcy.

 

While this prediction is established theoretically, there is no prior empirical evidence supporting this idea. Using a sample of 104 Chapter 11 bankruptcies of large public firms, I find that debt-like compensation – specifically Supplemental Executive Retirement Plans (SERPs) – is associated with higher recoveries to unsecured debt in bankruptcy. (SERPs are in almost all cases a form of unsecured debt that is at risk in bankruptcy. The only exception is if SERP assets are held in a secular trusts. Secular trusts are rarely used in compensation of executives at large public firms, however, because they result in the loss of tax deferral.) Recoveries to unsecured debt are 22% higher for a firm whose CEO holds sample mean levels of debt-like compensation compared to a firm whose CEO holds no debt-like compensation. I also document that debt-like compensation is associated with efforts to preserve more liquid assets prior to bankruptcy (e.g., cuts to research and development expenses).

 

The complete paper can be downloaded here.

Tribune Fraudulent Conveyance Litigation Roundup

Recently, in In re Tribune Co. Fraudulent Conveyance Litig., 2016 WL 1226871 (March 29, 2016), the Second Circuit held that 11 U.S.C. § 546(e) preempts state law constructive fraudulent conveyance claims brought by creditors even though the text of § 546(e) mentions only trustees. The court thought it unwise to focus exclusively on § 546(e)’s limitation to trustees in ignorance of its context and legislative history. Using those indicia of meaning, the court concluded that the statute’s purpose is to insulate securities markets from avoidance proceedings, and that allowing creditors to assert state law constructive fraudulent conveyance claims would frustrate that purpose. Accordingly, it held such claims preempted.

Weil Gotshal, Shearman & Sterling and Mintz Levin believe the decision properly forecloses creditors from circumventing § 546(e) by either suing individually under state fraudulent conveyance laws or assigning their claims to the trustee. According to these firms, the decision thus reinforces equitable distributions because it prevents creditors from enhancing their individual recoveries.

Latham & Watkins, on the other hand, believes the decision’s “sweeping” language leaves creditors “stranded at sea” and doubts other circuits will join the Second Circuit’s expansive interpretation. Caplin & Drysdale agrees that the court went too far. “Any untoward consequences threatened by the simultaneous prosecution of claims by a trustee and creditors,” the firm explains, “could be prevented by a Section 105(a) injunction.”

Meanwhile, according to Freshfields, Schulte Roth, and Paul, Weiss, the decision merely reaffirms the Second Circuit’s commitment––announced in Enron and Quebecor––to expansive interpretations of the Bankruptcy Code’s safe harbors.