Debt Structure as a Strategic Bargaining Tool

By Yue Qiu, University of Minnesota (will join Temple University as Assistant Professor of Finance on August 1st, 2017)

In this paper, I study the strategic role of debt structure in improving the bargaining position of a firm’s management relative to its non-financial stakeholders. Debt structure is essential for strategic bargaining between management and non-financial stakeholders because it affects the ease of renegotiating debt contracts and thus the credibility of bankruptcy threats. Debt structure, not necessarily debt level, is shown to be adjusted as a response to an increase in non-financial stakeholders’ negotiation power.

Using NLRB labor union elections as a laboratory setting and employing a regression discontinuity design, I find that passing a labor union election leads to larger creditor dispersion in a firm’s outstanding debt. In particular, union certification leads to an increase in the ratio of public debt to total assets and a decrease in the ratio of bank debt to total assets in the following three years after elections, whereas there is no significant change in the level of total debt. Moreover, the syndication size of newly issued bank loans increases while creditor ownership concentration decreases once the vote share for unions passes the winning threshold.

Further analyses confirm that the debt structure adjustments after union certification are more likely driven by strategic concerns of management rather than more constrained access to bank loans. Finally, I also show that the degree of wage concessions is strongly related to a firm’s debt structure using the airline industry as an empirical setting.

The full paper is available here.