Dov Fox on Roe v. Wade

In a new piece at the Huffington Post, Bill of Health Contributor Dov Fox explores “The Forgotten Holding of Roe v. Wade — that states have a valid reason to regulate reproductive conduct because of an interest in “potential life.”

That “the State may [legitimately] assert” that interest, Roe held, “as long as at leastpotential life is involved,” explains why the government may, as a constitutional matter, restrict stem cell research that destroys human embryos, for example, whether or not those frozen embryos might otherwise be brought to term. That the fetus “represents only thepotentiality of life,” on the other hand, and accordingly lacks any interests of its own under the Constitution, explains why states may not, as many have tried, accord the legal status of personhood to human life beginning at conception.

The potential-life holding helps to resolve these and many other disputes over embryo contracts, fetal pain, and sex selection, for example, as I show in a forthcoming article. Arecent lawsuit exemplifies the enduring significance of Roe‘s potential-life holding. The case marks the first-ever federal challenge to fetal protection laws that punish women for using drugs during pregnancy.

Alicia Beltran, a Wisconsin woman who’s expecting her first child in January, couldn’t have expected that showing up for her regular prenatal checkup back in July would lead to her arrest and 78-day detention for substance abuse. She wasn’t using any drugs, after all, and her pregnancy was healthy. All she did was refuse to take an anti-addiction drug that the clinic had recommended to treat a dependency to pain pills that (she admitted) she’d once struggled with, but didn’t anymore, as tests confirmed.

Ms. Beltran is now seeking a federal injunction to block the enforcement of the 1998Wisconsin law under which she was detained. That law, like those in several other states including Minnesota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota, authorizes the state to detain and forcibly treat any pregnant woman who “habitually” uses alcohol or controlled substances. Such restrictions are designed, these laws explain, to promote the state’s constitutionally approved interest in “potential life.”

Read the full article here.

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This entry was posted in Abortion, Bioethics, Contraceptive Coverage, Dov Fox, Health Law Policy, Judicial Opinions, Personhood, Reproductive Technology by Dov Fox. Bookmark the permalink.

About Dov Fox

Dov Fox is Professor of Law and founding Faculty Director of the Center for Health Law Policy and Bioethics at the University of San Diego School of Law. He has published dozens of articles in leading journals of law and medical ethics, most recently “Reproductive Negligence” in 117 Columbia Law Review 149 (2017). His current book project, Birth Rights and Wrongs, is under contract with Oxford University Press. His work has been featured in CNN, ABC, NPR, BBC, Reuter’s, Bloomberg, the Boston Globe, and the Washington Post. Fox is a regular columnist for The Huffington Post and contributor to the Bill of Health blog. He also serves on the advisory boards of the American Constitution Society and Appellate Defenders, the non-profit law firm that administers all appointed counsel for indigent defendants in California's Fourth Appellate District. Prior to teaching, Fox served as a law clerk to the Honorable Stephen Reinhardt of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. He has also worked at the law firm of Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz; the consulting firm of McKinsey & Company; and the Civil Appellate Staff at the U.S. Department of Justice. Fox was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship to attend Oxford University, where he earned his DPhil and then received a Soros Fellowship for New Americans to attend Yale Law School, where he served as projects editor for the Yale Law Journal and all three years was awarded the prize for best student paper in law and the sciences.