If I had world enough and time, the Fargo outline below would turn into one of my (less than) daily outlines. Instead I’m publishing it in raw form: links alone. Trust me: they’re all worthwhile. And I like them better this way than in as many open tabs spread across three browsers, all of which are used, with limited success, by robotic entities, to follow me. Maybe if they follow all this stuff together, they’ll know more.
BTW, in earlier drafts of this outline, browsers automatically made the links live. But, alas, that doesn’t seem to be the case now. Oh well. Copy and paste then.
Markets and Marketing
Surveillance and Data Protection
Writing and Publishing
Philosophy and Thought
- http://www.linuxjournal.com/content/linux-now-slave-corporate-masters and
A decent provision for the poor is the true test of civilization. — Samuel Johnson
Visitors to New York’s Orchard Beach (at the top of the photo above) probably don’t know that the low wooded island offshore will, at the current rate, contain a million buried human bodies, if it doesn’t already.
The site is Hart Island (aka Hart’s Island), and it is New York’s potter’s field: where the city’s “unclaimed and indigent” dead are buried. It is the largest tax-funded cemetary in the world. Burial is done by inmates of the Department of Corrections, which also controls the island. Visitors are not welcome.
I knew nothing about Hart Island until I found myself looking at the picture I shot of the place, above, while seeking information about something else. Though bleak, the stories of the place are fascinating — and, it seemed to me, far too important to leave as far out on the margins of consciousness as they are of the City. So I compiled a list in a Fargo outline, which I’ve arranged below.
One item I’ll pull out of the list to start with is The Hart Island Project*, by Melinda Hunt (@hartisland) and a team of collaborators. Melinda has been leading a steady effort to open up the island to visitors and to humanize and modernize the records kept of persons buried there. Her constituency includes all who reside in what we might call the Mass Grave of the Barely-Known Outcasts — and too few of the living, so far. So dig:
- See wooden coffins starting to fill an open trench on Google Maps.
- Here is a better “birds eye” view on Bing. Note that these are open graves.
- Hart Island. An amazing and much-sourced photo essay by The Kingston Lounge: Guerrilla Preservation and Urban Archaeology. Brooklyn and Beyond.
- Melinda Hunt on the Hart Island Project.
- Access to New York’s Potter’s Field. To the Editor of the New York Times, by Melinda Hunt.
- What Happens When A Homeless New Yorker Dies? By Dan Lewis in Smithsonian.
- Hart Island: At New York City’s Potter’s Field, Identifying The Dead And Finding Closure. By Ula Ilnytzky in Huffington Post.
- Hart Island Burials In New Online Database; NYC Potter’s Field World’s Largest Municipal-Run Graveyard. By Amy Zimmer in Huffington Post.
- New Yorker helps people track down loved ones who died unknown. On CNN.
- Artist uncovers tales from New York burial island. Adam Geller, Associated Press. (In SFGate.)
- Rapid City woman haunted by Hart Island burial ground. By Mary Garrigan, Rapid City Journal.
- Hart Island Tour June 15, 2000. By The New York Correction History Society.
- Island of the Dead. In Google Sightseeing.
- Abandoned Island That Contains 800,000 Nameless Bodies. Amazing Facts.
- Manhattan in Middle Age. By Elizabeth Gumport in This Recording. It’s about the novelist Dawn Powell, who wrote, “New York is my city because I have an investment I can always draw on a bottomless investment of twenty-one years (I count the day I was born) of building up an idea of New York — so no matters what happens here I have the rock of my dreams of it that nothing can destroy.” She is buried in Hart Island.
- The Death of Yafna Garcia and Visiting Mille’s Burial Ground. By Chris Arnade Photography (@Chris_Arnade) . Excerpt: “Case #97 of the Bronx Medical Examiner. Cause of Death: Bacterial Endocarditis of tricuspid valve due to intravenous drug abuse. This information had not made it back to either Millie’s family or friends. In early April they still continued to talk of raising money for a funeral. That was not going to happen. Millie was already buried. On March 21, Millie’s body was shipped from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner to City Cemetery on Hart Island. Inmates from Rikers Island placed her body in a wooden box made by other inmates. She was placed in a massive trench (70′ x 20′ x 6′) joining roughly one million others that lay beneath an empty field on a small island two miles from the shores of the Bronx. Many of her siblings do not know she is dead. Those who do know don’t realize they cannot bury Millie on their terms. It is unlikely they will ever be able to pay their last respects. Hart Island is run by the Department of Correction and clouded in security and secrecy. It is close to impossible to visit. Family, after showing many documents, can fill out paperwork and hope. If they are accepted they can only get to the island via a ferry that leaves once a month. Her grave is unmarked: They wouldnt be able to find it, anyway.”
- Hart’s Island. By God’s Acre. Pull-quote: “When I first heard of Hart Island I was both appalled and excited in equal measure to find a place that I had never heard of and which seemed both illicit and intriguing. However, the more I read about Hart Island the more it became for me symptomatic of the anonymity of the Western world. We live and we die before being swept away in the morning like so much trash. The beautiful baby that is momentarily caressed in the arms of its mother is cast aside in later years and is laid to rest like garbage. Hart island is a loathsome and horrid place and somewhere that I expected to find in the genocidal annals of European history rather than in the land of the free.”
- Trailer for “Hart Island: An American Cemetery”, by Melinda Hunt.
- The Sad Demise of Bobby Driscoll, child actor and the voice of Peter Pan in the Disney animated classic. Buried at Hart Island.
- Lost Boy: The Bobby Driscoll Story. A YouTube video for a Kickstarter that came up short.
- Bobby Driscoll on Hart Island. Another YouTube video. Caption: “from his daughter hoping her voice is heard.” Her voice is in text. Gotta watch it.
- Finding Names for Hart Island’s Forgotten. By Cara Buckley in The New York Times.
- Searching for Names on an Island of Graves. By Sewell Chan in The New York Times.
- Sketching Lives Long Buried and Forgotten. By Andy Newman in The New York Times.
- Hart Island is NYC’s Public Burial Ground. By The City of New York Department of Correction. Searchable Database. http://www.correctionhistory.org/html/chronicl/nycdoc/html/hart.html.
- The City Life: Piercing the Mystery of Potter’s Field athomesense.com)/li>
- New York City Introduces Online Database for Its Potter’s Field< eogn.com)
- Green-Wood Cemetery and Hart Island Potter’s Field artassemblyrequired.org)
- New York City’s Secret Island Graveyard cssewell71.wordpress.com)
In fact Hart Island is New York’s ninth Potter’s Field. Writes Melinda Hunt,
A few of these early potters fields remain in the public domain as smaller parcels of land now known as Madison Square Park (1794), Washington Square Park (1797), Bryant Park and the Public Library (1823). Except for the last potter’s field in Manhattan, located at the current Waldorf Astoria Hotel (1836), no records exist of the bodies being moved elsewhere. At all other sites, parks were created after the cemeteries, parade grounds, and the reservoir closed. Once the city expanded beyond 50th Street, the East River became a more convenient route for transporting the bodies. Potter’s fields opened briefly on Randalls Island (1843) and Wards Island (1846) before moving much further out to Hart Island.
It’s a haunting history. Another excerpt:
The burial records show an ever-changing pool of immigrants, diseases and disabilities administered to by a range of institutions. It remains too mixed and varied to become the darling of any special interest group. Genealogists that I have spoken with claim that most families with immigrant roots in New York City probably have lost relatives buried on Hart Island. As one recently told me: “People come to me hoping to discover ‘nobility’ in their ancestry, but the missing people usually turn out to have had alcohol problems or mental illness and were buried in Potter’s Field.”
In New York City, the combined nine potter’s fields have close to one million burials. An immense amount of history is associated with these places. Yet, there is almost no academic or institutional interest in the public cemeteries. Most of the writing about Hart Island takes the form of journalism documenting specific events. Distinctive in these accounts is the unanswered question of why such a place continues to exist. Most other American cities cremate the unclaimed and unwanted. If burials are provided they are in more accessible places. Chicago has a potter’s field with mass graves as part of a private cemetery. New York City offers burial assistance to families who organize an application. Nonetheless, the burials continue to number two to three thousand a year. Even with the twenty-five year time limit, the northern 45 acres of Hart Island named Cemetery Hill is full. Current burials have moved to the shallow grounds south of the workhouses.
New York City has a long-standing policy of respecting diverse religious practices. Many religions do not permit cremation. Until recently Catholics buried on Hart Island were placed in separate “consecrated ground.” In 1913, “baby trenches” were separated from “adult trenches.” Starting in 1935, “catholic babies” had separate trenches from “regular babies.”
Incredible care and expense goes into conducting the burials. In 1990 the cost of flowers, tools, heavy equipment, parts to repair equipment, general maintenance equipment, fuel and inmate labor, at thirty-five cents per hour, drove the cost of each burial to $346. In addition, the city provides for free exhumation if family members claim a body within seven years of burial.
During the first fifty years of Hart Island burials, “unclaimed” people were buried in single graves. Only the “unwanted” whose relatives assigned them to a public burial were in mass graves. Today, all bodies are carefully organized into a grid. The ends of trenches are marked by a number pressed into a concrete block. Re-excavations require locating the designated body within this numbered scheme.
Perhaps it is the abstraction of human lives into trench numbers and statistics that is most disturbing about the potter’s field. I was impressed by the fact that the burial records from the nineteenth century contain full names, causes of death and countries of origin. In this century the names of babies up until 1940 are strictly female; each child’s identity is linked exclusively to the mother. She is the person forever associated with the potter’s field. After 1940, only surnames are listed. By 1955, the causes of death for children are uniformly listed as “confidential.” By 1970, the category “cause of death” is left blank. That the island is prohibitively difficult to visit adds another level of removal.
Then there is this, from Thomas Badhe, in a Common Place essay,” The Common Dust of Potter’s Field: New York City and its bodies politic, 1800-1860″:
The first Potter’s Field burial ground in New York City was located at the site of what would become the militia parade ground and city park at Washington Square. On this nine-and-a-half-acre plot, at the city’s pastoral northern edge, lay the densely packed corpses of about 125,000 “strangers,” many of whom had died during two separate yellow-fever epidemics between 1795 and 1803. Not surprisingly, local residents who had fled crowded lower Manhattan for country estates in the region came to find in Potter’s Field an intense nuisance. Whatever sympathy anyone had for the anonymous dead did not supersede wealthy New Yorkers’ sense of entitlement when it came to their comfortable insulation from the city’s darker side. In a letter to the Common Council, they wrote, “From the rapid Increase of Building that is daily taking place both in the suburbs of the City and the Grounds surrounding the field alluded to, it is certain that in the course of a few years the aforementioned field will be drawn within a precinct of the City.” Within the first two decades of the nineteenth century, their prediction had been realized, and the Potter’s Field began a lengthy series of migrations in a vain effort to stay a step ahead of the city’s relentless growth.
In 1823, the city moved Potter’s Field to an empty lot at the corner of Forty-ninth Street and Fourth Avenue—what would then have been the far northern reaches of the metropolis. This place served as the Potter’s Field until the 1840s when, as the city grew northward, it was relocated once again to Randall’s Island in the East River. Cast off the Island of Manhattan like so many family farms, Potter’s Field would no longer clash with the New Yorkers’ Victorian sensibilities or inhibit the Manhattan real-estate boom.
Just south of Randall’s Island, separated by a treacherous, narrow channel known as Little Hell’s Gate, was Ward’s Island, the site of another Potter’s Field in the mid-1850s. Both Randall’s and Ward’s Islands already housed other city institutions for the indigent, including the Emigrant Refuge and Hospital, the State Inebriate Asylum, the juvenile branch of the Almshouse Department, and the headquarters for the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents. As one guide to New York and its benevolent institutions observed, “multitudes of persons went from the dram-shop to the police-station, and from the police courts to the Workhouse from whence, after a short stay, they returned to the dram shop . . . until they at length died on their hands as paupers or criminals, and were laid in the Potter’s Field.” For most of New York’s institutionalized underclass, there was literally a direct path from the door of the asylum or workhouse to the Potter’s Field.
Relocating the city’s cemetery from Manhattan’s urban grid to an island in the East River did not put an end to the city’s problem with the indigent dead. In 1849, the Daily Tribune reported on the political and legal wrangling between the governors of the Almshouse and the Common Council (the nineteenth-century name for the City Council), the former seeking to wrest authority over Potter’s Field from the latter. The governors cited the poor management of the paupers’ burial ground, which the Tribune referred to as “that den of abominations,” as evidence that the Common Council was unable to manage the Potter’s Field. “We do sincerely trust somebody will shoulder the responsibility of the Potter’s Field,” the Tribune pleaded, “and rid the Island of the abomination before the advent of another warm and perhaps an epidemic season.”
The Common Council and the Governors of the Almshouse traded letters, pleas, and vitriol for the better part of a decade. In May of 1851, the Governors warned the Common Council that, “the land now appropriated [for the Potter’s Field] is now nearly full, and the small space left for further interment (which now average upwards of one hundred per week), renders prompt action necessary.” Four years later, it was still unclear who had control over the Potter’s Field, and conditions were worsening. By this time, there were two burial grounds for paupers: the primary site on Randall’s Island and a smaller one on Ward’s Island to the south. The Board of Governors proposed to expand the Ward’s Island site in 1854, and the Times supported the proposition, suggesting that “it is time that the remains of paupers were interred in some quarter better fitted for their last resting-place than the one now used on Randall’s Island.” In their reports to the Board of Health and the Common Council, the Governors of the Almshouse urged that, “humanity, a due regard for the living, and a sense of proper respect for the dead” be part of any effort “to remedy the existing and impending evils.”
In the meantime, the disinterment of bodies at the old site on Fourth Avenue aroused its own controversy. In 1851, a plan was adopted by the Common Council to expand Forty-ninth Street through the old Potter’s Field, which required the disinterment of thousands of bodies. This project stretched on for nearly the entire decade, accompanied by foot-dragging and corrupt contractors. Commenting on the enormity of the project, the Times reported in the spring of 1853 that “the City Authorities are cutting a street through the old Potter’s Field . . . where so many victims of the Cholera were hurriedly interred in 1832. The coffins were then, in many instances, stacked one upon another; and now, in digging through the hill, the remains of twenty coffins may be seen thus piled together.”
As with the active Potter’s Field, the old paupers’ burial ground aroused no small amount of controversy. In the summer of 1858, the Timesagain reported on the work, claiming that “within three weeks past about 3,000 skeletons have been exhumed from the old Potter’s Field . . . and removed to Ward’s Island.” The winter of 1858-59 passed without any further exhumation, and “meantime the thin layer of earth which covered some hundred half-decayed coffins has fallen away, and . . . crowds of urchins assemble there daily and play with the bones of the dead; troops of hungry dogs prowl about the grounds and carry off skulls and detached parts of human bodies.”
Many of the old potter’s fields became parks. Washington Square is said to have twenty thousand bodies beneath it. Yet today it seems no more haunted than is Paris by its Catacombes, which I visited and wrote about three years ago, and which contains a population of dead that outnumber the city’s live citizens. The real haunting, I believe, is within our culture and its institutions. On that I’ll give Thomas Badhe the last words:
Having strolled through the rural cemeteries, we can better appreciate why the piles of moldering coffins exposed to the public in the 1850s caused New Yorkers to question their city’s claims to “civilization.” But the Potter’s Field was not only the antithesis of the rural-cemetery ideal (as well as a failure of municipal administration); it was also a site of spiritual death, obliterated social identity, and the graveyard of vice. If, as one proponent of rural cemeteries claimed in 1831, “the grave hath a voice of eloquence,” the Potter’s Field spoke in a dark chorus about the failures of democracy and civilization, the stark and messy exigencies of urban inequality, and thousands of individual lives wrecked on the shores of the great metropolis.
* The Hart Island Project is now a beautifully built website featuring the means to look up people buried there, and to tell their stories. Highly recommended.