Tag: vocal music (page 1 of 5)

Happy Birthday, Jenny Lind!

In commemoration of renowned Swedish soprano Jenny Lind’s 200th birthday on October 6th, we’re taking a look at her time in and around Boston during her 1850-1852 U.S. tour. Lind came to the United States soon after her European opera career ended, at the invitation of infamous impresario Phineas T. Barnum. Starting in September 1850, she gave ninety-three concerts under his management, traveling to cities including New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Havana, and Cincinnati over the course of nine months. A combination of Barnum’s publicity and Lind’s much-admired voice and charitable giving made her hugely popular across the country – indeed, “Lind mania” swept the nation.

Lind gave seven concerts in Boston under Barnum’s management, third to New York (where she gave thirty-five) and Philadelphia (where she gave eight). After an amicable break with Barnum, she continued touring the northeast, giving five Boston concerts in June 1851 and returning for another short series in November-December of that year. Boston at this time was known for its sacred music ensemble, the Handel and Haydn Society (est. 1815); the Germania Orchestra, a touring group from Berlin which accompanied Lind on several occasions, would establish their home base in Boston in 1851. In addition to the city’s musical life, this Jenny Lind Promotional Newspaper held at the Barnum Museum in Bridgeport, Connecticut, reasons Boston’s allure was also environmental.

Jenny Lind Promotional Newspaper clipping

Jenny Lind Promotional Newspaper. Published by F. Gleason, Museum Building, Tremont Street, Boston, p3

1850 September 23 Jenny Lind elected Honorary Member, by acclamation, of the Boston Musical Fund Society, a musicians’ cooperative. (She was not present to accept.)

1850 September 27 First performance in Boston at the Tremont Temple. The Boston Daily Evening Transcript reported that even with muddy streets, “every seat in the Tremont Temple was occupied before eight o’clock.” Her portion of that first program included operatic favorites by Rossini and Weber, as well as an audience favorite, the “Herdsman’s Song,” a Swedish melody. Lind took up residence in a four-room suite at the Revere House, an upscale hotel that was destroyed in 1912.

etching of Tremont Temple

“Tremont Temple” The Boston Directory for the year 1851

1850 September 28 Lind received many visitors, including politician and former Harvard president Edward S. Everett, poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Massachusetts governor Colonel George N. Briggs. Lind visited the Harvard Observatory a few nights later on Everett’s invitation, during which time a comet reportedly flew overhead.

1850 October 1 Second performance in Boston at the Tremont Temple. The second program included additional operatic standards by Rossini, Meyerbeer, and Mozart.

1850 October 6 Fourth performance. The first half of the program featured sacred music, including selections from Handel’s Messiah and Haydn’s Creation.

1850 October 10 Charity concert. Lind raised over $7,000 (over $200,000 today) which she donated to organizations including the Boston Port Society (later the Boston Seaman’s Friend Society), the Musical Fund Society, and the Association for Aged and Indigent Females.

1850 October 12 Concert in Boston at the Fitchburg Railroad Hall. The crowd became rowdy when some ticket holders reportedly could not access their seats and several windows were broken to improve the ventilation, but the concert eventually went on as scheduled. The Jenny Lind Tower, relocated to North Truro, MA in the 1920s, was originally part of the hall; Lind reportedly climbed the tower during her visit.

1851 June 18 First concert in Boston since her break with Barnum. Historian Robert Gales notes that Lind made a June visit to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow at his home on Brattle Street in Cambridge.

1851 summer After concluding her concerts in Boston, Lind traveled to Springfield and Northampton, where poet Emily Dickinson heard her sing on July 3.

1851 November 22 Concert at the Melodeon in Boston. The New York Times mentions it was a sold out performance. The Boston Morning Journal noted that the Melodeon was acoustically superior to the Tremont Temple and Fitchburg Railroad Hall, allowing for “the full extent, the richness and purity of her magic voice” to be heard.

1851 November 25 Sold out concert cancelled on account of illness.

1851 November 28 Lind returns having “recovered from her indisposition.”

1851 December 1 Another concert at the Melodeon. On this occasion, the New York Times reports Lind was experiencing hoarseness due to a cold and chose to forego her first piece.

1851 December 6 Final Boston concert.

1852 A new Music Hall (now the Orpheum Theatre) is dedicated by Jenny Lind.

newspaper clipping from New York Times announcing Lind’s marriage

Lind marriage announcement in The New York Times.

1852 February 5 Lind marries her accompanist, Otto Goldschmidt, at a friend’s Beacon Hill home. The New England Historical Society writes about the private ceremony. The event – which had been organized in complete secrecy – astonished press and fans alike (“Jenny Lind Married–The Nightingale Flown Into the Nest of Matrimony” read one headline in Vermont). The couple honeymooned in Northampton, Massachusetts for three months.

Boston Marriage Register

Boston Marriage Register from February 1852 featuring Lind and Goldschmidt.  Ancestry.com. Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988)

For more information about Jenny Lind, see these online and digitized collections:

Europeana Collection of Jenny Lind Paper Dolls

Stanford University Jenny Lind Collection

Bibliography

Gale, Robert L. A Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Companion. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Press, 2003.

Holland, Henry Scott, & Rockstro, William Smith. Memoir of Madame Jenny Lind-Goldschmid: Her Early Art-Life and Dramatic Career, 1820-1851. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Ware, W. Porter and Thaddeus C. Lockard, Jr. P. T. Barnum Presents Jenny Lind: The American Tour of the Swedish Nightingale. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980.

This post was written collaboratively by Liz Berndt-Morris and Katie Callam (PhD ‘20).

Much ado about nothing: searching for scores by women composers

This is the only known score of Etelinda, an opera in three acts by Mildred Marion.

Front cover of Ethelinda, the English vocal score of Mildred Marion Jessup's opera Ethelinda

Mus 742.902.601, Merritt Room

First performed in Florence in 1894, it was published in this vocal score version the following year. The libretto has been translated into English, and in the Music Library’s copy a second version of the finale laid in at the end is annotated, the Italian text restored by hand in red ink.

An alternate finale is laid in, annotated in red ink with the original Italian libretto.

Mus 742.902.601, Merritt Room

The score appears to have been self-published, as there is no publication information on the title page. It is enclosed in what is known as a publisher’s binding. The cover is paper, as opposed to the leather more commonly used in the first half of the nineteenth century for covering self-published scores. The composer’s name and the English title, generically stylized, ornament the front. As there are no other known copies of this score in library catalogues one wonders whether a small number were created for the composer and librettist to present as gifts; this copy is inscribed A’l Maestro Commendatore Tomagno avec les homages de A.E. Jessup. It was given in 2002 by Professor Emeritus John M. Ward.

Ethelinda title page inscribed by librettist.

Mus 742.902.601, Merritt Room

We happen to know a bit about both the librettist and the composer. The composer’s full name was Mildred Marion Jessup, previously Lady Mildred Marion Bowes-Lyon. She lived from 1868 to 1897, was raised in a musical family and in 1890 married Augustus Edward Jessup, an American businessman (and the librettist for Etelinda). She is listed in the Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women.

There are no parameters for searching library catalogs which reliably bring together musical works by women. Library of Congress Subject Headings does include the term Women composers but this is meant to be used to describe books which address music by women specifically, for example the excellent bibliographies in the Greenwood Press Music Reference Collection (see here for Helen Walker-Hill’s Piano Music by Black Women Composers then click on one of the subject headings at the end of the record, such as African American women composers or Women composers, Black to browse more subdivisions of this heading). Other subject searches that yield secondary literature are Feminism and music and Music by women composers (right between Music by Sultan composers and Music, Byzantine).

How, then, might we tease scores of music by women composers out of library systems? The absence of a publisher or a place of publication can be a clue. To take this record for Etelinda as a starting point, one technique would be to target these self-published or privately published scores. The terms s.l. and s.n., abbrevations of the Latin terms sine loco and sine nomine, were until 2013 used by Harvard Library catalogers to signal that no place of publication or publisher’s name could be seen or inferred. We now use the English-language terms place of publication not identified and publisher not identified in these situations. If there is a likely place of publication or publisher, then that is supplied in brackets, sometimes followed by a question mark, so any score upon which such research has been performed already by the cataloger would have escaped receiving an s.l. or s.n. or the English equivalents.

And, if we associate this sort of binding with the sort of composer who may not have achieved commercial prominence, we can further infer that a keyword search for binding, limited to scores, will generate at least a few interesting results. The complete results of that search are 33 items, of which four have female authorship (two composers, two compilers).

The sombre opening chords of Etelinda.

Mus 742.902.601, Merritt Room

It is likely that we will soon be able to search library catalogs and other databases by the gender of the composer and in fact the gender of any other person affiliated with a work.

RISM, the online inventory of musical sources, includes this information in its name authority records. Catalogers working in the back end of the database can filter search results by the gender of the composer (the choices are male, female and unknown). This filter isn’t available to users searching in the public interface but the data are there and theoretically actionable. Earlier this month, RISM made available a spreadsheet listing all 803 known women composers in the database.

The beginning of Act II, an intermezzo in G major.

Mus 742.902.601

The Linked Jazz Name List includes gender information, as well. And Resource Description and Access, the cataloging standard now in use at most American repositories, gives these instructions in its section 9.7.1.3, Recording Gender:

“Record a gender of the person, using an appropriate term in a language preferred by the agency creating the data.  Select a term from a standard list, if available.”

The third act, "organ within."

Mus 742.902.601, Merritt Room

A last, difficult but effective way to discover scores by female composers in a library catalog is simply to cross-reference between a list of known female composers and the catalog, painstakingly searching one name at a time. Here, for example, is IMSLP’s Women composers category.

But nowhere on this list do the names Marion, Bowes, Lyon or Jessup appear (although there is another Mildred).

Isham Memorial Library is the special collections unit within the Loeb Music Library. Many of its materials are in open stacks, with rare and unique items held in the locked Merritt Room. To view Merritt Room materials, use your Special Collections Request Account. As Isham is not always fully staffed it is advisable to wait for a confirmation message from a staff member before you plan your visit.

 

 

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