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With this blog we hope to draw attention to the intriguing and remarkably rare items discovered by Harvard Library users during the course of their research. Harvard Library Preservation routinely reviews books returned through circulation, knowing that these returns include a surprising numbers of works that are too deteriorated to survive continued use, and are that too rare and interesting not to share online with the Harvard community, and beyond.

Titles are selected for digitization through various criteria such as rarity, condition, use, research relevance, and/or visual content. We invite you to peruse the titles posted here as well as subscribe to our feeds and see what titles queued for digitization, as well as those already completed and online.

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Utopia and dystopia are recognized genres of fiction that probe the fabric of humanity’s social, political, and cultural framework. Utopian novels present the author’s philosophical perspective of an ideal society, while dystopian fiction examines how civilization is prone to social and moral afflictions, technological compromises, and political abuse, corruption, and oppression. Some early pioneers and novels in this genre have been forgotten, but at the time of publication, these works were influential and models for subsequent landmark works.

The utopian novel, Voyage du prince de Montberaud dans l’Île de Naudely (1703) by Pierre de Lesconvel, has fallen into obscurity. However, it still offers an interesting insight into France during the reign of Louis XIV. The story takes place on a fictitious island, Naudely, a supposed 3 month journey from Amsterdam. The island is ruled by an absolute monarch with a pious, righteous, and frugal population. The island boasts peace, prosperous trade, and wealth, where the ruling is benign and principled. The book was dedicated to the Duke of Burgundy, the son of King Louis XIV, perhaps as a way to invite the duke to endorse a higher moral code when he ascends to the throne. Pierre de Lesconvel’s utopic morality has adulterers forced to wear conical hats and attacked by dogs as punishment. For the majority of the novel, we follow a discussion of topics between the Prince de Montberaud and the Governor of Merinde (the capital of Naudely). Their discussions touch upon reform and the removal of corruption, as well as a governing class established upon merit and examinations. There is no consensus on whether the novel should be considered a criticism or satire of Louis XIV’s rule, or a model for reform.

the nobles receive the kiss of peace from the judges

dogs attacking the adulterer

 
Emile Souvestre published the dystopian novel, Le Monde Tel Qu’il Sera [The World As It Will Be] in 1846, with several interesting predictions and commentaries on what he foresaw as the inevitable trajectory for an expanding industrial society. The novel presents a French couple, Maurice and Marthe, who are taken by a man on a flying locomotive, named “John Progress”, to the year 3000. Upon arrival, the couple encounter subways, submarines, telephones, and even power shoes. The world has become consolidated under a single nation called “The Republic of United Interests,” where society is ruled by corporations and consumerism. Children are engineered in greenhouses and assigned roles in society. Some of Souvestre’s predictions seem prophetic, including his projection that news will  be available to the public 24/7 and envisioning female equality and independence. Ironically, Souvestre’s dark vision of the future is wrapped in humor and whimsical illustrations making the story seem lightweight and frivolous. Souvestre died young (1854), but his daughter, Marie Souvestre, became a notable the feminist writer and educator who taught Eleanor Roosevelt.

aerial excursions

students are raised under glass

children raised in material excess and pleasures

 

Description:
Lesconvel, Pierre de. Relation historique et morale du voyage du Prince de Montberaud dans l’île de Naudely, où sont raportées toutes les maximes politiques & chrétriennes qui forment l’harmonie d’un parfait gouvernement. Merinde : P. Fortuné, 1709.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:10931616
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

Description:
Souvestre, Émile. Le monde tel qu’il sera. Paris : W. Coquebert, [1846].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:9654567
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

The Russo-Japanese War, 1904–5, grew out of a struggle for dominance and influence over Manchuria and Korea. Russia was interested in maintaining and expanding trading ports in warmer southern coastal areas and eyed both Manchuria and Korea as desirable. Japan was willing to negotiate an agreement where Russian could control Manchuria but leave Korea alone. Russia’s rejection of this proposal led to an armed conflict with Japan. Tsar Nicholas II assumed Russia would prevail over a Japanese military he viewed as inferior. However a series of quick Japanese victories led to the fall of Port Arthur and the eventual destruction of the Russian fleet. With Tsar Nicholas unwilling to accept the humility of an outright surrender, Theodore Roosevelt stepped in and mediated a peace treaty between Russia and Japan in 1905. The outcome of the conflict was a weakened Russia and the rise of Japan as a military power with imperialist ambitions.

Starting with the Crimean War, photography was recognized as lucrative and influential for journalistic documentation as well as persuasive propaganda. Images could be more powerful than first hand written accounts and hold sway with public opinion more immediately and effectively. The Russo-Japanese conflict was the first war to be fully recorded by the international media, with journalists, photographers, and even motion picture makers capturing the battles and publishing these images across the globe. The publication 大本營寫眞班撮影 = The Russo-Japanese War taken by the Photographic Department of the Imperial Headquarters, was produced by the notable Ogawa Kazumasa, a photographer, publisher, and pioneer of photomechanical reproduction. Ogawa was a talented marketer and understood the potential for photographic reproductions, providing images from tense battle scenes to the mundane moments waiting for action.

The war which is now being waged between Japan and Russia is not only the greatest that our country has ever been engaged in, but is also of such magnitude as has seldom been recorded in the history of the world. It is otir good fortune to be living in these stirring times and witness with our own eyes this stupendous struggle as it unfolds itself before us ; and therefore, it is surely incumbent upon us to secure by every means in our power a true representation of its course for transmission to the remotest posterity. Our Imperial Headquarters, impelled by the same consideration, resolved to obtain such faithful pictures of all the actions, movements, and battlefields in this war as are beyond the power of tongue or pen to present with sufficient vividness, and for this purpose, as is doubtless well known to the public, attached photographic corps to the various armies in the field…And now when our war with Russia is in progress, I am further honoured with the special permission of the Imperial Headquarters to reproduce in succession the thousands of photographs taken by the aforementioned photographers and publish them under the title of “ The Russo-Japanese War.” Feeling it my duty, in the face of such high favour, to show, on the one hand, my gratitude for the extensive patronage I have enjoyed and, on the other, to prove my single-hearted devotion to the cause of my art, I put forth my best skill and energy for days and nights on end in the reproduction of these pictures, until at length, after months of ceaseless toil, I am in a position to bring them to the notice of the public.  – K.Ogawa

cannonade from the hill

 

battle preparations

 

burial of the Russian dead

 

scouting in the millet field

 

trenches

 

Description:
Japan. Rikuchi Sokuryōbu, & Japan. Daihonʼei. Shashinhan. (1904). Nichi-Ro Sen’eki shashinchō : Rikuchi Sokuryōbu tokkyo. Tōkyō: Ogawa Isshin, Meiji 37-39 [1904-1906].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:30011101
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

Folklorist D.R. McAnally Jr. researched and compiled an entire volume of Irish legends and tales, Irish Wonders, in 1888. While little is known about McAnally, his publication was especially significant for the literary giant, William Butler Yeats, who consulted this work as he incorporated Irish folktales into his own writings. McAnally’s compilation became the defacto source of Irish tales for subsequent publications and literary collections. His description and story of the leprechawn, or leprechaun, is notable. He depicts the creature as neither good nor bad, but very mischievous.

He writes:

Midway, however, between the good and evil beings of mythologies there is often one whose qualities are mixed ; not wholly good nor entirely evil, but balanced between the two, sometimes doing a generous action, then descending to a petty meanness, but never rising to nobility of character nor sinking to the depths of depravity ; good from whim, and mischievous from caprice. Such a being is the Leprechawn of Ireland…

He is of diminutive size, about three feet high, and is dressed in a little red jacket or roundabout, with red breeches buckled at the knee, gray or black stockings, and a hat, cocked in the style of a century ago, over a little, old, withered face. Round his neck is an Elizabethan ruff, and frills of lace are at his wrists. On the wild west coast, where the Atlantic winds bring almost constant rains, he dispenses with ruff and frills and wears a frieze overcoat over his pretty red suit, so that, unless on the lookout for the cocked hat, “ye might pass a Leprechawn on the road and never know it’s himself that’s in it at all.”

McAnally initial description of the Leprechaun may not entirely jive with our modern rendition of the little fellow. Interestingly, McAnally claims there are different leprechauns one could find across Ireland:

  • The Northern Irish Leprechaun, who wore a “red military coat and white breeches, with a broad-trimmed, high-pointed hat, on which he would sometimes stand upside down.”
  • The Lurigadawne of Tipperary, with his “antique slashed jacket of red,” who was “also sporting a sword, which he used as a magic wand.”
  • The Luricawne of Kerry, “a fat, pursey little fellow whose jolly round face rivals in redness the cut-away jacket he wears, that always has seven rows of buttons in each row.”
  • The Cluricawne of Monaghan, classily-dressed in a “swallow-tailed evening coat of red with green vest, shiny shoes, and a long cone hat without a brim.”

McAnally’s tale of the Leprechawn is also considered to be the first written reference to a “pot of gold”, which has since become an accepted attribute for all leprechaun stories.

There was Tim O’Donovan, of Kerry, who captured a Leprechawn and forced him to disclose the spot where the ” pot o’ goold ” was concealed. Tim was going to make the little rogue dig up the money for him, but, on the Leprechawn advancing the plea that he had no spade, released him, marking the spot by driving a stick into the ground and placing his hat on it. Returning the next morning with a spade, the spot pointed out by the ” little ottomy av a desaver ” being in the centre of a large bog, he found, to his unutterable disgust, that the Leprechawn was too smart for him, for in every direction innumerable sticks rose out of the bog, each bearing aloft an old ” caubeen ” so closely resembling his own that poor Tim, after long search, was forced to admit himself baffled and give up the gold…

 

Description:
McAnally, D. R. Irish wonders :the ghosts, giants, pookas, demons, leprechawns, banshees, fairies, witches, widows, old maids, and other marvels of the Emerald Isle : popular tales as told by the people. Boston : Houghton Mifflin, 1888.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:1273441
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

Grant Allen (1848 – 1899), is not well remembered today, but he was a prolific Canadian science and science fiction writer, novelist, naturalist, and a strong supporter of evolution theory and feminist ideals. Educated in France and England, he started as a teacher, but soon moved to writing on scientific subjects. However, he gained his greatest success from his fiction writing, publishing over 30 novels in 15 years. H.G. Wells is usually given the nod as the father of science fiction, but Allen was also pioneer in this genre as well, particularly on the subject of time travel. Allen also dabbled in mystery novels, boldly featuring female detectives. In 1893, Allen was approached by the publisher Raphael Tuck & Sons to contribute a novel to their new series entitled “Breezy Library”. The series would focus on what the publishers called “shilling soothers”. These were novels expected to be less shocking and more popular with mainstream audiences. It was a prototype for the modern romance novel. Allen contributed the third publication in the series, An Army Doctor’s Romance. The novel offered  a simple love-story in which Muriel Grosvenor finds herself in the position of having agreed to marry two men at once. Both men are in the Army and before the matter can be resolved they are sent off to Africa to combat an uprising of the Matabele in modern day Zimbabwe. During the conflict, Dr. Oliver Cameron saves the life of his rival. His rival falls in love with the nurse caring for him, leaving Muriel and Oliver to find each other. Perhaps the story was not as breezy as the publisher expected, with a light romance amidst the violence of warfare. Here’s a review of the novel from The Speaker 

An “Army Doctor’s Romance” is a comparatively slight specimen of Mr. Grant Allen’s powers as a writer of fiction, but it is not without merits of its own. The plot is distinctly ingenious, and has one refreshing variation from conventional fiction. Besides, Mr. Grant Allen, with his wonderful instinct for actuality, has laid the chief scene of the story in Matabeleland during a war between the whites and the Matabeles. There is a vivid description of an attack upon an English lager, which is probably quite as accurate an account of the recent fighting as anything we are likely to get from the special correspondents. How did Mr. Grant Allen succeed in being so completely up to date, seeing that his story must have been printed long before the recent operations began? “ An Army Doctor’s Romance ” is beautifully printed and handsomely illustrated, whilst it contains in addition an excellent likeness of the author.

Not long after this publication, Allen wrote the novel for which his most known, The Woman who Did (1895). It is the story of Herminia Barton, a college girl who falls in love with Alan Merrick, but decides not to marry him because of her stance on female emancipation. Instead of marriage, they cohabit giving birth to a daughter, but soon afterwards Merrick, dies suddenly leaving Barton to carry on as a single mother with no marital inheritance. The novel was considered scandalous and caused a great sensation soon after its publication.

Description:
 Allen, Grant. An army doctor’s romance. London ; New York : R. Tuck, 1893.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:955153
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

The Baby Tender

 

19th century homes posed many hazards for babies and toddler, such as open fires and cooking utensils. Static wood cradles and other barriers were the default safeguard for preventing tragic accidents. However, most households did not use such devices, instead relying upon older children to watch over younger siblings. In the 1860s, Dr. J. Silas Brown, who practiced at the Hygiene Hospital, Boston, constructed an elaborate contraption that could serve a multitude of functions. This “magic cradle” was a single device that could serve as a crib, cradle, baby jumper, or a hobby horse. All in all, it allowed for 9 unique setups to amuse and protect a baby or toddler. Pleased with the outcome of his invention, Brown abandoned his profession and devoted himself almost exclusively to the business of selling and perfecting his magic cradle. The ambitious concept for an “all in one” type of device is remarkable for its time and in many ways anticipates the current range of baby related consumer products today that claim too integrate educational, entertainment, and safety aspects in one gadget. It is unclear if Brown had any real financial success with his invention.

The Baby Tender is neither new nor untried. The present (ottoman) style was first introduced to public notice in August, 1861. Since that time it has met with constantly increasing favor from all classes of the community. Not only has it given entire satisfaction to those who had used it, but in most cases has exceeded the highest expectations formed of it. The variety of forms which it is easily made to assume, the greater variety of uses to which it may be applied, the immense relief which it affords to mothers, and the comfort and delight which it gives to infants and children, all combine to render it exceedingly popular wherever known….Mr. Angell, the well-known and highly esteemed Superintendent of the “ Home for the Friendless,” No. 29 East Twenty-ninth street, New York, writes : “ It is altogether the most complete and desirable article of the kind I have ever seen. Children prefer it to the arms of mother or nurse.”

THE BABY TENDER BRIEFLY EXPLAINED. It is not only a noiseleess and charming cradle, but is easily and instantly changed into either of the following articles—each in itself complete and perfect, viz. : A Reclining and Sitting Couch for infants. A Baby- jumper, allowing perfect freedom of motion. A Baby-horse for children of either sex. A Baby-walker, attractive and useful. A – Nursery Chair. A High chair for the table. An Ottoman, and A delightful Hobby-house for boys or girls. The Baby Tender is entirely safe, simple, and easily understood, and with ordinary care will last for many years. It stands on castors (no part being suspended), occupies no more space than a small trunk, and may be safely moved by a child of 3 years. Those who have never used it have no conception of the toil and anxiety which it saves to those having the care of infants and children.

 

“The baby jumper — amply provided with healthful exercise and the means of amusing themselves, children will remain in the Baby-jumper for hours together without the opportunity of doing or receiving harm, or the ability to release themselves. The Baby-jumper alone is worth, to many mothers, the whole cost of the Baby-tender.”

“The HobbyHorse (Figs. 10 and 11) is the last in the list of articles into which the Magic Cradle maybe converted. This change, like either of the others, can be made in from 5 to 30 seconds by persons accustomed to the use of the Baby Tender. Without disconnecting the chair from the iron bed-piece on which it rests, lift chair and bed-piece together off of and from the ottoman, and put the horse in its place. This charming horse possesses the following advantages : 1st. The exercise and motion obtained by its use, very much resemble those derived from actual horseback riding. 2d. It is noiseless, does not wear the carpet, and occupies but little space, 3d. It affords safe, pleasing, and healthful exercise foi children under 5 years. 4th. It possesses both a vertical and revolving motion, which is true of no other Hobby-horse in use.”

 

Description:
Brown & Co. (New York, N.Y.) issuing body. Brown’s patent baby tender, or magic spring cradle converted into nine other delightful and useful articles for mothers and children, the whole design to take the place of a nurse. New York : Wynkoop & Hallenbeck, printers, 1864.
Persistent Link:
https://nrs.lib.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:37921787
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

Wooster Beach (1794-1859), was an ardent opponent to the allopathic/heroic medical treatments developed in the 18th century, especially such remedies as blood-letting and purging with mercurials. Beach viewed these methods as both ineffective and likely detrimental to the patient. Instead, he was an advocate for keeping an open mind to treatment options and concentrating on using nature’s remedies, botanical solutions derived from Asian and Native American cultures. Beach and his followers were often referred to as “botanic,” “reformed,” or “American” physicians. Beach founded a school and method officially known as Eclectic Medicine. The system was a focused on the application of non-invasive practices through the use of botanical remedies or other healing therapies that were in harmony with the body’s natural curative properties. Eclectic Medicine eventually fizzled out by the mid 20th century under the pressure of AMA professional requirements and the established academic matriculation. However, its legacy is still visible in the more recent developments of holistic medicine.

In addition to establishing medical schools, Wooster Beach was the author of at least a dozen medical works, using publication as way to spread his message. Beach was a reformer and was willing to question conventional thinking in society and religious doctrines. Beach understood the power of publicity and became known nationally and internationally through his numerous writings, which he distributed free to many world leaders.

 I have spared neither pains nor expense to acquire a knowledge of the practice of the most noted botanical physicians, retaining from each everything which I have proved by experience to be useful. I have not thought it beneath me to converse with root and Indian doctors, and every one who has professed to possess any valuable remedy, or any improved method of treating any disease. The hints and suggestions of experienced nurses and female practitioners have not escaped my notice. ” For,” says a former president of the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons, ” there is not a maxim or remark of any experienced female or nurse which is not based upon sound pathological principles.” They are generally diligent observers of nature, and often point out her indications in a correct and masterly manner, which often disappoints the physician and the friends of the patient. 

 

Sickness op the Stomach.—Some women are incessantly harassed by nausea, or sickness of the stomach, and that during the whole period of gestation or pregnancy. For this symptom the patient should take the following preparation : Take sal Eeratus, (bicarbonate of potash,) one tea-spoonful ; peppermint or spearmint tea, half a pint: mix; of this let a tablespoonful be taken occasionally, to be accompanied with the use of spearmint tea. Soda powders have also been found very serviceable to allay the irritability of the stomach in such cases; but the best preparation that I have ever found to relieve the sickness of the stomach attendant on pregnancy is, an infusion or tea made of the rose willow bark, (cornus sericea.) This has proved, in my hands, exceedingly valuable.

The above figure represents an improved portable shower bath, which may be constructed at a small expense, and placed in a bed-room or other place. Both the bath and the water may be drawn to the desired height by means of the cord or rope running over the pulleys, and fastened to the ceiling. The person taking the shower bath is placed within, surrounded partially or wholly by the curtains, when he pulls a wire or cord which inverts the vessel overhead containing the water, and lets it fall in copious streams over the whole body. There is a receiver at the bottom in which the patient stands, and which prevents any escape of the water. ” The warm, tepid, cold, or shower bath,” says Combe, ” as a means of preserving health, ought to be in as common use as a change of apparel, for it is equally a measure of necessary cleanliness.”

Now a corset, or tight lacing of any kind, fetters the freedom of those bones, destroys all the advantages of the joints and hinges which nature has provided, and thus lessens the room in which the lungs and heart move— besides depriving them of the aid, the impulse they derive from the motion of the bones and muscles. But all this is not half the mischief. The ribs, especially at the joints or hinges, being soft in young people, and the gristles much softer, are compressed by the lacing so as to approach nearer and nearer to the breast-bone in front; sometimes they lap over it and meet each other : nay, there are instances of tight lacing where the ribs have not only passed the sternum and met, but have overlapped each other ! Far short of that extreme, however, fatal effects may be expected. 

 

Description:
Beach, W. The family physician, or, The reformed system of medicine on vegetable or botanical principles :being a compendium of the “American Practice” designed for all classes, in nine parts … : this work embraces the character, causes, symptoms, and treatment of the diseases of men, women, and children of all climates. New York : Published by the author, 1843.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:10246894
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

Carry On!

   

Towards the end of the First World War, the publishing company of Harrison and Jehring published a short series of photo-pamphlets on various aspects of the British war effort. Intended as morale boosters, each pamphlet conveyed the supreme level of sacrifice and resolute commitment by British citizens. The cover art mimicked the simple yet striking characteristics of many posters produced during the war era, while the inside provided numerous on-location photographs, arranged like magazine collages or vignettes. One pamphlet entitled, Carry On: British Women’s Work in War-time, is particularly intriguing. The use of the term “carry on” became more notable in WWII, as in the motivational slogan “Keep Calm and Carry On”, but it really had its origin in WWI as a nod to the British steadfast notion of carrying on business as usual, even amidst conflict and doubt. This pamphlet also illustrates the significant contributions women provided in the war effort, pushing the limits of traditional gender roles and ushering in the modern woman. As the war was winding down, Parliament passed an initial act granting the vote to women.

But it is not in munition work alone that the face of British industry has been transformed by the extension of women labour. As post-women and police, as bakers and farm workers, as motor drivers and ‘bus conductors— in almost every occupation of which the mind can think — British women are now cheerfully ” carrying on ” while their men-folk are away. In her hour of greatest need Britain has called to her daughters. She has not called in vain. By their industry, their efforts and their heroic sacrifice, the women of Britain have saved their country and saved the world.

In another pamphlet, German prisoners in Great Britain, the publisher highlights the humane and considerate accommodations afforded to the captured enemy.

They illustrate nearly every aspect of life in the camps, and show that the excellence of the conditions under which the prisoners live are in striking contrast with the regime which obtains in many of the prisoners’ camps in Germany. It is only necessary to recall the horrors of a Wittenberg or a Gardelegen to appreciate the admirable organisation of the prisoners’ camps in Great Britain.

 

munitions instructions

 

women taking on a range of jobs in the war effort

 

German prisoners enjoying arts and crafts at camp

 

African campaign

 

signaling stations

 

Description:
The sentinel of the seas :the tireless vigil of the British Navy. London : Harrison, Jehring, [1917?].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:3204724
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

Description:
Behind the lines :building the road to victory. London : Harrison, Jehring, [1917?].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:3204688
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

Description:
Carry on :British women’s work in war time. London : Harrison, Jehring, [1917?].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:3204683
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

Description:
Through swamp and forest :the British campaigns in Africa. London : Harrison, Jehring, [1917?].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:3204684
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

Description:
German prisoners in Great Britain. London : Harrison, Jehring, [1916?].
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:3204702
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

When Prince Ludwig married Princess Therese on Oct. 12 1810, the city of Munich celebrated the occasion over 5 days with a combination of horse races, drinking, and feasting. The anniversary celebrations continued each year, with a growing number of participants, activities, and displays, eventually becoming known as Oktoberfest. At the 100th anniversary of Oktoberfest in 1910, a jubilee celebration was organized to be greater and more elaborate than any Oktoberfest before. Festivities included historical exhibitions, costumes, parades, rides, music and plenty of beer. It is estimated that visitors to the 100 year Oktoberfest consumed a record 120,000 litres of beer. It was also at this celebration that the Teufelsrad or “Devil’s wheel” ride was introduced. The ride is comprised of a rotating circular platform upon which riders sit or lie. It begins spinning slowly and increases its speed to make riders slide off the platform. Add 120,000 litres of beer to this human whirligig and you have yourself a brouhaha.

Ernst von Destouches (1843 – 1916), an archivist, city chronicler, and historian, was a key organizer of the 100 year celebration and created a set of festival anniversary publications. The publication appeared in 1910 in two editions: “a particularly detailed and beautifully made secular edition, of which only a few copies were distributed to select individuals, and a greatly streamlined popular edition published for the masses”.  Some of the illustrations were done by Paul Neu, a local artist who provided significant works for the Oktoberfest exhibition grounds in Munich.

Description:
Destouches, Ernst von 1843-1916 author. Jahrhundertfeier des Münchener Oktoberfestes (Zentral-Landwirtschafts-Festes) Gedenkbuch. München : J. Lindauersche Buchhandlung (Schöpping), 1912.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:30021415
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

Description:
Destouches, Ernst von 1843-1916 author. Münchener Oktoberfest (Zentral-Landwirtschafts-Fest) 1810-1910 Gedenkbuch zur Hundertjahrfeier unter Mitwirkung bayerischer Schriftsteller. München : J. Lindauersche Buchhandlung (Schöpping), 1910.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:28058662
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972) was a pioneer in blending psychology and engineering into the management of the workplace. In recognition of her accomplishments, Lillian Gilbreth was the first woman to be elected to the National Academy of Engineering, and until recently, the only woman to have been awarded the Hoover Medal for great, unselfish, nontechnical services by engineers to humanity. Her doctoral dissertation, The Psychology of Management, Gilbreth laid out three fundamental recommendations for management– focus on the worker’s well being, provide individualized training, and use psychological testing to match jobs with workers. In addition to these academic achievements, she was a mother to 12 children and become the role model for the mother in the book and subsequent movie “Cheaper by the Dozen”. For most of her early career, she was overshadowed by her husband and partner in the field of scientific management, Frank Gilbreth, with publications mostly credited to him. While her husband focused much more on the scientific and technical study of efficiencies in production, Lillian would be more concerned about worker welfare and reducing stress, fatigue, and boredom. Together, their partnership resulted in comprehensive and innovative publications in the field of workplace efficiency.

The crux of the Gilbreths’ work was the creative application of motion picture film to quantify the number of motions involved in a specific work task and the time required to carry it out. The resulting data and images provided a model in which to calibrate and adjust basic human motion for greater efficiency and less physical and mental stress. Due to the injuries and disabilities resulting from WWI, Frank and Lillian also became proponents of workplace solutions for those with disabilities. Their publications would help employers understand how to modify environments and workflows to accommodate the worker’s physical limitations. This book, “Motion Study for the Handicapped,” which was published in 1917, is considered the first book to provide in-depth investigation into occupational rehabilitation. In the volume, Frank demonstrates the application of motion pictures to break down the essential motions in a job and how to pare them down to their bare necessities, increasing production efficiencies and reducing worker fatigue substantially. He created flow charts and elaborate 3D models to track movements of workers and products through their various stages to develop better work environments.

The aim of this book is to present methods of least waste in training and placing the handicapped, to tell not only what has been done and what can be done but also actually how to do it and why it should be done in this manner…. Along with these the many manufacturers who have placed their devices at our disposal ; the managers and workers in the industries who have cooperated in our investigations and offered opportunities to those whom we have trained ; and especially, perhaps, the handicapped themselves, who have demonstrated their successful methods, offered their experience, voluntarily acted as subjects for investigations, and cheerfully followed all suggestions offered. The progress in work for the handicapped along all lines is astounding.

Mr. Gilbreth has set out to take moving pictures of as many champions or experts in various trades or sports as he can, in order to study their methods and find the points of similarity between their motions. So the champion typist of the world, an expert bricklayer, and Christy Mathewson, the famous baseball pitcher, have been photographed ; and a few months ago, in Germany, Gilbreth took pictures of the champion fencer of the world. He even hopes to get pictures of the champion oyster-opener of Rhode Island !…Motion study for the blinded, like Motion Study for the crippled, involves three branches of work— teaching the teachers of the blinded, teaching the blinded themselves, and discovering opportunities in the industries where the taught can be satisfactorily placed.

Again, through the packet method, which provides for the arrangement of materials on a proper support and in the required sequence and the proper position to be transported to the next operation, it is possible to combine ” Search ” (1), ” Find ” (2), ” Select ” (3), ” Grasp ” (4) and ” Position ” (5), and to make of the entire five elements one operation requiring nothing but a simultaneous reach and grasp. The elements ” Assemble ” (7), ” Use ” (8), and ” Dissemble ” (9) can also, in many cases, be performed without the use of the eyes and with the effort involved much minimized through the use of proper desks and work-benches, chairs, arm-rests and foot-rests. An enormous amount of fatigue can be removed on many types of operations if the forearms are properly supported. 

 

motion picture film capturing worker movements

3D models created based on the film capture of movements for further study and training

a disabled worker equipped with a dictaphone to assist in managing orders

modified keyboard machine to aid a worker with one arm

taking motion pictures of a typist and analysis of the film

 

Description:
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker. Motion study for the handicapped. London : G. Routledge & Sons, 1920.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:4882964
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

Noah Brooks (1830 – 1903) is most notable as a journalist, editor, and early biographer of Abraham Lincoln. In fact, he was a close friend of Lincoln and a regular visitor to the White House. Brooks was even invited to the presidential box at Ford’s Theatre the night Lincoln was assassinated, though he was unable to attend due to an illness. Seemingly trivial in comparison to his work on Lincoln, Brooks is also credited with writing the first novel about baseball in 1884. The novel is set in a manufacturing town near Chicago, just after the Civil War, where the two local teams debate whether “training” or “muscle” is more important for building a great baseball team. In the end, they concede both methods are necessary for success and agree to play their common rival in a major event. Al Spalding, former pitcher and sporting goods magnate, provides an introduction to the novel where he praises the author for his accurate and faithful portrayal of the game.

When we consider how strong a hold the pastime of base ball playing has upon our people, it is a little surprising that more frequent use of the game, as a framework, has not been made by writers of fiction. There are very few Americans, certainly very few of the younger generation, who are not only familiar with the nomenclature and rules of base ball, but are enthusiastic lovers of the sport. Even among the gentler sex, who may be regarded as spectators only of the game, there is to be found much sound information and an intelligent acquaintance with the details of base ball playing; while every hearty and wholesomely taught boy knows everything worth knowing about the game, the famous players, the historic contests, and the notable features of the sport, as practiced in various sections of the republic. To write an introduction to a story whose slender plot should be threaded on a base ball match seems to be an almost superfluous work. But I am glad that Mr. Brooks has undertaken to illustrate “The National Game” by a story of outdoor life.  –A.G. Spaulding

While the storyline is rather banal, the novel does surface some interesting cultural aspects of baseball in America during the 1860’s, including the role of women, post-war anxiety, and the prevalence of gambling. Baseball was growing fast and facing some big debates about the integrity of the game and amateurism versus professionalism.

Some scandal was created by the appearance of Hank Jackson on the street with a roll of bills, offering to make bets on the game. It had never been the custom of anybody in Catalpa to wager anything on a base ball game, and there was some frowning now on the part of conservative and upright people; and those who were not specially conservative, but who disapproved of gaming.

Since the outbreak of the war, when everybody was scraping lint, making “comforts” for the soldiers, or marching to the front, there had not been so hot a fever of enthusiasm in Catalpa. The soldiers of this new campaign were the lusty young heroes up in the Agricultural Fair Grounds who were doing battle, every day, with imaginary foes and making ready to face the real antagonists who could not now be very far off; for the base ball season would open in a few weeks. 

Alice Howell was flattening her pretty nose against the window pane as she looked ruefully out into the misty atmosphere that surrounded her father’s house in North Catalpa. It was eight o’clock in the morning, and the great base ball match was set for two o’clock, that afternoon. As soon as she had risen, Alice had run to the window to see what were the signs of the sky, for Alice was an ardent lover of the American game, and her heart was set on the great match that was to come off on the Agricultural Grounds, near Catalpa, that day. 

 

The literary news: a monthly journal of current literature. [New York, N.Y.]. vol.5, 1884.:

[The publishers] have shrewdly taken advantage of the very widespread interest in the national game of baseball that now prevails to publish a novel based upon the subject. Its title is “Our Baseball Club, and How It Won the Championship,” and its author is Noah Brooks, a well-known journalist, and the writer of one or two successful boys’ stories. The present is a tale which will interest the boys throughout the land, but it is not exclusively a boys’ book. Mr. Brooks is evidently familiar with the game, and this is only another way of saying that he genuinely admires it. He well appreciates the capabilities that it has for being utilized in fiction, and has made a very successful employment of them for that purpose. There are the points of a good love story connected with the plot, and there is also a picture given of the dramatic contests for supremacy, the tricks resorted to by the less honorable players, who scheme for defeat, and of everything, in short, that is necessary to unfold the panorama of ball-playing to the public. The work has enough of literary flavor to make it interesting without being pretentious in this connection.

 

 

Description:
Brooks, Noah 1830-1903 author. Our base ball club and how it won the championship. New York : E.P. Dutton and Company, 1884.
Persistent Link:
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL:29575707
Repository:
Widener Library
Institution:
Harvard University

 

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