The Venetian physician and botanist, Prospero Alpini (1553 – 1617), spent three years in Egypt from 1580-1582 studying, recording, and hypothesizing about sexual differences in plants. His scientific research in Egypt and Eastern Europe was focused on identifying therapeutic uses of plants. Some of his observations and descriptions, including the coffee plant and the banana tree, are considered to be the first to appear in European publications. In fact, much of his research paved the way for Carl Linneaus’s landmark classification work over a century later. Upon his return to Italy, Alpini was appointed professor of botany at Padua where he also became director of the city’s famous botanical garden. Johann Vesling (1598-1649), a colleague of Alpini at the University of Padua, worked and traveled with him extensively at the end of the 17th century. Alpini and Vesling published works based on their travels to Egypt, which had still remained mostly unknown to much of Europe at the time. Together, they made significant observations, described the ancient monuments, inhabitants, flora and fauna, as well as the natural resources of Egypt. This two volume set from 1735 represents their collaboration, with much of Alpini’s original work appearing in the first part, while Vesling’s contributions occupy the second part.