Creating six projects of my own choosing rather than researching and writing papers for this course seemed a delightful diversion and alternative to study.  What I found was that I researched just as diligently as when I write papers and had to supply thoughtful attention to the matter, both intellectually and symbolically.  It required the use of both sides of my brain thus providing deeper meaning and ensuring the retention of material.  Working with religious themes necessitated the creation of the objects with respect and awareness of the divine.  Seyyed Nasr says it better than I could, “[Divine Law’s] role in art . . . is in moulding the soul of the artist by imbuing it with certain attitudes and virtues.”[1] I strived for that goal and hope I achieved it.  Looking back over the projects there are three overarching consequences that resulted from the work.  I will outline the three and then highlight each project specifically as it pertains to the categories.

The first consequence was a deeper understanding and appreciation for the practices and concepts of Islam.   In some cases I learned basic information such as the development of Arabic when we wrote calligraphy, or the various types of Persian poetry so that we could compose our own poem.  In other situations the concepts and ideology of Islam were made clear.  An example of this is how the mosque is viewed as a place of prostration, but so is the entire world, so any place can be sacred.  Seeing this spectrum of Islamic practice and belief, it became clear that Islam is just as diverse as most other religious groups are.  Individuals within a particular tradition make meaning of the foundations of their faith in their own way to some extent.  The religious tenets of a tradition may be different from how it is actually practiced.  Fundamentalists, extremists, liberalists, and ecstatics might all be found within the same tradition, whatever that tradition may be.

The second benefit of creating these projects was a connection I felt to humanity, artists in particular.  Struggling with the meter of a poem or of achieving the desired effect of watercolor paint allowed me to relate to Muslim artists as human beings, regardless of faith.  All artists endeavor to express some truth.  Nasr wrote of the power of Islamic art, but it could apply to all art, so I alter his statement somewhat here: Art conveys a spiritual message through a timeless language which, because of its symbolism, is more effective than most verbal explanations.[2]  As a gallery instructor at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston I see the affect that art has on people once the effort to relate to it and make meaning of it has occurred.  To be on the creating side of an art object was a unique opportunity for me to experience the artist’s role.

Unfortunately the third result of this creative work was not necessarily a benefit.  The more I learned, the more I realized how much I do not know; and that is frustrating, although humbling at the same time.  In the process of making a piece, I could see numerous possibilities before me and in deciding which option to choose it became apparent that I needed to know more in order to make an informed decision, one that was true to Islam.  For example, when I wanted to engage the senses in devotion I decided on a sachet.  Then the question arose as to which flower to choose that would have some meaning, and then what color flower to choose since colors carry meaning.  This required knowledge of Islam.   The questions go even further: should the flower image on the outside be a bud or in full bloom?  There is so much I do not know still.  This cautions me to be mindful when I speak of Islam, or any faith tradition, to remember that I do not know it all and should not speak as an authority.

The first creative project I completed was a Qur’an cover.  In the course we learned about the sacred nature of the Qur’an as the actual word of Allah; that it is recited, not sung; and about the non-linear arrangement of the surahs.  I wanted to create a cover that would signify the unique nature of the Qur’an and make it obvious that this is not merely a book. It needed to be special and show devotion to the word therein.   After completing it, I came to understand the outrage that Muslims experienced when a Qur’an was “accidentally” burned by American soldiers.  I was filled with disbelief that someone could burn a Qur’an, not recognizing what it was.  What I still have not experienced, concerning the Qur’an, is the depth of emotion that the recitation of it evokes for Muslims.  Watching judges cry over the beauty of a child reciting Qur’an is difficult for me to relate to, probably for cultural reasons.  I cannot appreciate the verbal intricacies and nuances that are part of this tradition of recitation, although I can respect, admire, and enjoy it.

Since I love working with my hands, making the rose petal sachet was great fun.  As mentioned earlier, I learned about which flowers are significant to Islam and the symbolism of colors.  This was my introduction to Sufism.  It was exciting to think about engaging the senses in worship and devotion, to demonstrate love of Allah not just through salat, but in other ways and at other times. Exploring the esoteric aspects of faith was appealing.  It provided for me a means by which to relate to God on a different level than the usual formal practice of prayer.  Sufism allows for greater and more pervasive participation of the individual’s soul.  More than the head for remembering prayers, more than the body for assuming the postures and gestures appropriate to prayer, Sufism enables the entire being to communicate with Allah.  This direct and personal relationship with Allah, without an intermediary, was another important aspect of Islam that I came to understand.  I realized also that there are probably other scents that facilitate Muslim worship about which I still need to learn.

The global mosque presented some challenges.  I wanted to be inclusive by showing all the continents, but that would have meant splitting the Earth in half and showing it as two globes or using an ovoid image that distorts the Earth’s shape and stretches it out.  The former would have not represented the unity that I wanted to convey and the latter would have reduced the size of the continents to such a degree that I would not have been able to affix the soil and sequins.  I settled for the ubiquitous Western hemisphere view of the Earth.  Conceptually, I learned that the whole of Allah’s creation is holy and that “mosque” means place of prostration. I realized that a mosque can be any place on Earth where you prostrate yourself.  This enables a devotee to incorporate their faith into their everyday life regardless of where they are when they feel so moved.  Worship does not have to be restricted to a particular place at a particular time on a particular day, as it is for many Christians, but can take place as the spirit is compelled.  Specifically, I learned the difference between Sunni and Shia opinions on mosque decoration and use.  Mosques are also important places of community involvement beyond structured worship services.  The communal aspects of worship were familiar to me, so I was able to relate to group worship and ritual practice, thus finding common ground.  What I felt was missing for me though was the mosque as experienced by a Muslim.  Attending a service might help with this, although the gaps in my knowledge of Arabic and the Qur’an might still render it inadequate.

For my fourth project I made a watercolor painting of a scene from Farid ud-Din Attar’s The Conference of the Birds.  I am most proud of this piece.  It satisfied the vision I had better than the other projects, which each fell short in one way or another of that for which I was aiming, either technically or symbolically.  This, like many of the pieces, was about Sufi expression.  Like a ghazal, which can be interpreted and understood on different levels and in different ways by the audience, this painting could be understood through aesthetics alone or the deeper religious meaning could be discerned.  For some it may be a lovely image of birds flying over some valleys.  An observant viewer might notice that the flock of birds forms the same shape as the wing span of each individual bird.  For those who look more closely, though, they will detect that the flock of birds is arranged to represent the Arabic “Allah.”  They will realize there are seven valleys and thirty birds-this is Attar’s story.  This painting, and the story that goes with it, represent for me the journey we all make through life.  Whether we are searching for God or release from the suffering of this world we are each on an individual journey, a journey that is actually part of the journey of all mankind.  No one travels through life totally alone, even though at times it may seem so.  The soft blur of the watercolor represents the lack of clarity we have of life, even though the shapes are delineated enough that we think we know what we see. In the making of this painting I experienced the connection to all humanity that underscores our very existence.  I suspect that if I could understand this story in the original language it would provide many more layers of appreciation.

Envisioning a whirling dervish in a two-dimensional form was another step in my understanding of Sufism.  I was challenged to take a three-dimensional expression of devotion and reduce it, minimize it, to a two-dimensional one.  The control that is such an important component of the dervishes’ dance was a new concept for me.  Seeing the dance in this simpler format demonstrated more acutely the controlled aspect and pattern of the movements. I learned that apparently unordered and ecstatic worship can actually be just as functional as more formally ordered prayer sessions.  I was able to reconnect with the Spirograph of my youth and the hours of pleasure I found in making designs.  I also connected with those who “surf the web” as I searched for a site that could do what I needed done. What I still do not know is the experience of such ecstasy by the dancers.  My particular church does not engage in ecstatic experiences and, I suspect, I would be a bit frightened by them if they were to occur.  My puritanical New England upbringing has influenced me so that it would take some work to be free of that to the degree necessary to engage in such ecstasy.

My final project was writing a ghazal; this one, of a more political bent than the one I wrote that was required for the course, concerning the veil.  Since my other projects were all in the visual arts field, I thought it would be beneficial to try something different.  I love writing poetry and really enjoyed composing the first ghazal, so I decided to stretch myself by engaging in the contemporary socio-political theme of veiling.  I learned about Persian poetry and poets and about the issues facing modern-day Muslim women. The wearing of the veil is a complicated topic that has both supporters and denouncers.  It engages political and social elements, not just religious ones. As mentioned earlier, I felt very connected to poets of any or no religious persuasion when I struggled with rhyme and meter.  Add to that the hope of doing justice to God’s word and the pressure is only increased and so is the appreciation for those poets who have been able to write such incredible pieces.  I also learned that as beautiful as they are in English, they are probably even more glorious and meaningful in the original Urdu.  That is a loss that I will probably never be able to correct.  Hearing it in Urdu would be lovely, but there are nuances of language in the original that just cannot be replicated in English or appreciated if Urdu is not understood.

One additional consequence of this course and these projects was that my own Christian faith was transformed by my study of Islam.  In Christianity there is a lot of emphasis placed on right behavior as a way to avoid Hell and reach Heaven, salvation.  From Islam I came to understand the self-centered nature of that view and that love of God, Allah, is a more worthy and accurate response to God.[3]  All the blessings of our lives are gifts from God and it is fitting that we show our gratitude.  By extension, love of others is inherent in our worship of God.  Salvation will come, or not, but the most important action of humans is to love God and neighbor.  I am practicing putting salvation as a goal behind me and focusing instead on adoration of God.








Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Islamic Art and Spirituality.  Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987.


Renard, John.  Seven Doors to Islam. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.


[1] Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Islamic Art and Spirituality (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987), p. 5.

[2] Nasr, p. 195.

[3] John Renard, Seven Doors to Islam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), p.11.

Whirling Dervish


After learning about the Whirling Dervishes of Turkey in class and viewing videos of sama,  I wanted to portray the design that might be left on the floor after they were done, as if they were figure skaters creating  a pattern.   I used a Spirograph computer program.  In an effort to respond to the esoteric, emotional, and ecstatic nature of devotion, each dervish spins in a circular fashion and moves around the floor in a circle.  The dervishes  together move as a circle.  The above design reflects both each individual and the entire group, resulting in an overall circular pattern with interlacing parts.

This form of Sufi devotion, the Mevlevi order, was begun by Rumi’s son, Sultan Walad.  It relates to the primordial nature of man, before language was created, when man connected to God through wordless action and feeling.   Each person has the ability to connect with God without an intercessor.  Sufi devotion is a way to do this.  The Qur’an verse 2:115 seems to speak to this: “To God belongs the East and the West; so wherever you turn, there will be the face of God.”  By turning in every direction one is able to see God.  For the dervishes the dance acts as a form of meditation.

The resulting circular pattern relates to the circular, inclusive nature of the cosmos, seemingly without beginning or end.  This could be understood to be the relationship we each can have with God, as well, giving Him praise and receiving his blessings in an endless cycle.  Each individual’s relationship with God can also intersect with other devotees as evidenced by the intersecting circles.

This image is printed on white paper, symbolizing the white garments of the dancers that represent burial shrouds of the physical world and the creation of a spiritual existence.  Rather than using black ink, which could have represented the robes the dancers discard before the dance but which would have inappropriately remained on the paper, I instead chose blue ink, which stands for protection by God.

The Veil


The Veil

Multitudes love to wear the veil.
It shows great Muslim care: the veil.

Certain sign of the pure and chaste,
Modesty for the fair: the veil.

Temptation posed by tresses seen,
Closely drawn, hide your hair: the veil.

Devotion strong, Him you adore,
Is this the way to fare: the veil?

But there are those who disagree.
Submissive, must I bear the veil?

Longing rests deep within my heart.
Liberty I must dare, the veil.

Good deeds I’ve done, proclaim my faith.
Condemn me not, I tear the veil.

See Dai for who I am inside.
Outside I will not wear the veil.


The multiplicity of views concerning wearing of the veil inspired this ghazal.  Contemporary socio-political issues are often addressed in traditional forms, so I chose traditional Persian poetry to be the vehicle for a modern day statement about a traditional custom.  The expectation is that by showing respect for tradition in the form of verse, the more modern view of dissent about wearing the veil will be seen as one of thoughtful consideration and not of rebellion.  Additionally, certain words have been used to refer to the Qur’an to demonstrate knowledge of and respect for Allah’s word.  In the second verse the word chaste refers to surah 24:30-31 which encourages chaste conduct, by men and women alike, by their looking (or not looking) and by controlling sexual impulses.  The same surah also recommends drawing veils across the bosom and is similar to surah 33:59 which directs women to draw their veils around them. Verse three refers to these passages.  Submission is a major aspect of Islam and surah 35:35 speaks of submission and chaste behavior as being rewarded by Allah. Verse five brings up this topic of submission by questioning whether one must veil in order to submit and be chaste.  The last reference to surahs is in verse seven where the use of “good deeds” from surah 16:97 is a reminder of what Allah ultimately desires from us.

The poem moves from a traditional view of veiling to a more dissonant one.  Devotion to and longing for Allah, although not specifically named and thus allowing the poem various interpretations, are themes in the ghazal.  The last verse, naming the author, encourages an esoteric and spiritual relationship and appreciation for women, more dependent on inner beauty and character and less on external traits.

Conference of the Birds


This watercolor painting depicts the last stage of the birds’ journey to the Simorgh when only thirty birds remain in Farid Ud-Din Attar’s Conference of the Birds.  I used watercolor because the soft, muted colors are more representative of the ephemeral quality of spirituality, while oil or acrylic would have rendered a more solid sense of the material world.  The many colors of the birds signify that various kinds of birds, or people, can reach the Simorgh, or God, if they have faith.  They are arranged in the shape of an individual bird’s wing span to convey their unity at this point in the journey.  The shape has also been adjusted to resemble the name “Allah” abstractly.  The seven valleys below the birds start on the lower left corner with fire flaring up and brown monsters peering out every so often in the Valley of the Quest.  The second valley, of Love, is obscured by smoke clouds.  The many roads among which the traveler must choose cover the Valley of Insight into Mystery.  For the fourth valley, of Detachment, rather than vary the kind of brushstroke used, I left the paper untouched to resemble the wintry tempest blowing.  After that comes the Valley of Unity, which is austere and vast.  The sixth valley is that of Bewilderment, marked by both fire and ice, so red and orange vertical flames are interspersed with white ice, white paper again.  The final Valley of Poverty and Nothingness is described as a wide sea, so it appears as a blue ocean.  The colors in the painting become more obscure and pale, and the details less exact, the closer they are to the seventh valley, indicating passage from the corporeal world to the spiritual world.

Qur’an Cover


This Qur’an cover was inspired by lectures on the Revelation to Muhammad and on the Qur’an.  The fact that the Revelation was oral, given to an illiterate man, but now is extant in a written form necessitates sanctity of it as the word of Allah.  When recited, the Qur’an is not singing and when written, it is not a book. It is the sacred word of Allah, so the appearance, the cover, of it needs to communicate that fact.  It cannot look like any other book.  For that reason, I chose a lush brown fabric. Solid brown communicates the serious nature of this work.  The texture of the material adds a tactile quality to the book.  This book is special both in appearance and in the feel of it.  Gold cording, representing the finest of metals, adorns the edges, encompassing the entire book figuratively.  The cording, made up of small circles, forms larger circles at the corners, softening the angularity and signifying the eternal quality of Allah.   The center is decorated with a circle of gold cord, again signifying Allah’s eternal, all encompassing nature and unity, yet oneness, tawhid.  The circle is accented with polychrome “jewels” that represent the diversity and high value of Allah’s creation, where all are united by one loving god.  Within this circle, at its core, is Allah.

As I worked on the design for this cover I found that my mind and my eye were bringing my heart along so that I wanted this to be as beautiful as I could make it.  I wanted it to truly present the sacred and unique status and quality of the Qur’an.  I experimented with various designs considering aesthetics as well as symbolism.  The inability to create something that truly reflects the majesty of the Qur’an, which resulted in frustration for me, may in fact be unavoidable because of the Qur’an’s divine nature.



The readings this week impressed upon me the concept of the mosque as a place where one prostrates oneself, prays, rather than as a building or particular site. This was a profound moment for a non-Muslim who has been conditioned to see religious structures as being sacred in and of themselves, regardless of what activity occurs within the walls or who is there.  Recognizing the sanctity of all places because of their being the creation of Allah, just as humans are, creates a sense of unity and oneness. Without any intermediary a Muslim can connect directly with Allah wherever they are.  What an immense comfort to know that God is present and accessible anytime and anywhere.  To communicate this conceptually I used soil to cover the land masses on a picture of the Earth (ideally the image would include all continents) indicating that every place, every bit of land is a mosque if you prostrate yourself there.  It is not the building that makes a place fit for prayer;  it is the person who stands on the soil.  Even if the soil has a prayer rug or concrete floor over it, the soil is underneath and forms the foundation for any structure above it.  The ocean areas are filled with sequins mimicking the effect of glass mosaic, a common artistic form in mosques.



This sachet, decorated with a rose and filled with dried rose petals, is a result of learning that the rose is a symbol for Muhammad and that the Qur’an can be experienced on all sensory levels, although rarely through the sense of smell.  The Qur’an can be heard with the ears when recited, seen with the eyes, touched with the hands, and spoken with the mouth.  It is even tasted by swallowing the diluted ink with which it is written in the Sudan.  However, it is not often experienced through the nose.  Thus a challenge arose: how can a follower experience the holy word of Allah with all five senses? This solution is to fill a sachet with dried rose petals so that it can be crushed gently in the hand, thus releasing the scent, and then place it in the clothes dryer so that all contents come out smelling of roses.  Wearing clothes, sleeping in sheets, or drying off with towels that carry the aroma would be a constant reminder of Muhammad and the Qur’an.  Furthermore, the rose on the outside is a visual reminder of Muhammad.  Ideally, a believer could use their mouth to recite the Qur’an while holding it with their hands and reading its words with their eyes, simultaneously listening to the sound of the recitation while smelling the aroma of roses rising from their clothing, incorporating all five senses.

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