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The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) – continued

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Game, a.k.a. analytical analysis, Section is the easiest one for some people at least good at maths. Here is one of the sample in terms of how to utilize the space in the limited test booklet.

LSAT Game

The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) – Chapter Eight Change

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Chapter Eight

Change

The secret of the LSAT is that all the tactics are from the extensive practice. You have to practice and see all the previous test before you can take the test. In the real tests, when you do the reading section, you need to have a clear idea of its own questions types, when you do the Game section, you need to consider the drawing and its two types of questions. When you do the logic, you need to know its categories.

“There are roads which must not be followed, armies which must be not attacked, towns which must be besieged, positions which must not be contested, and commands of the sovereign which must not be obeyed.”

Therefore, the ones who know the changes will ace the LSAT, and the ones who knows nothing about the change will not succeed. The test takers who do not know the change but take all the strategy as “as-is” will not get the answers right.

Therefore, the wise test takers have to know all the strategies and know why some questions got right, as well as knowing why some answer is wrong. By knowing the reason why some is right will help you to build the confident. Knowing why some is wrong will help you to avoid selecting the wrong again.

In order to manage the question well, you need to practice and practice. Practice makes you to find the questions types faster, practice makes your thinking clearer, and practice makes your answers more accurate.

The secret of the LSAT is not only getting more practice, but also analyze each questions to know exactly whether it is right or wrong and why it is so.

There are 5 mistakes also in the Art of War:
(1) Recklessness, which leads to destruction;
(2) cowardice, which leads to capture;
(3) a hasty temper, which can be provoked by insults;
(4) a delicacy of honor which is sensitive to shame;
(5) over-solicitude for his men, which exposes him to worry and trouble.”

You have to think carefully to avoid making the same mistakes in the “war”, let alone the LSAT.

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DISCLAIMER: THE FOLLOWING TRANSLATION IS FROM THE OPEN DOMAIN AND MAY CONTAIN SIGNIFICANT ERRORS. THE EDITING IS IN PROCESS AND PLEASE USE IT WITH CAUTION.MANEUVERING

VARIATION IN TACTICS

1. Sun Tzu said: In war, the general receives
his commands from the sovereign, collects his army
and concentrates his forces

2. When in difficult country, do not encamp. In country
where high roads intersect, join hands with your allies.
Do not linger in dangerously isolated positions.
In hemmed-in situations, you must resort to stratagem.
In desperate position, you must fight.

3. There are roads which must not be followed,
armies which must be not attacked, towns which must
be besieged, positions which must not be contested,
commands of the sovereign which must not be obeyed.

4. The general who thoroughly understands the advantages
that accompany variation of tactics knows how to handle
his troops.

5. The general who does not understand these, may be well
acquainted with the configuration of the country, yet he
will not be able to turn his knowledge to practical account.

6. So, the student of war who is unversed in the art
of war of varying his plans, even though he be acquainted
with the Five Advantages, will fail to make the best use
of his men.

7. Hence in the wise leader’s plans, considerations of
advantage and of disadvantage will be blended together.

8. If our expectation of advantage be tempered in
this way, we may succeed in accomplishing the essential
part of our schemes.

9. If, on the other hand, in the midst of difficulties
we are always ready to seize an advantage, we may extricate
ourselves from misfortune.

10. Reduce the hostile chiefs by inflicting damage
on them; and make trouble for them, and keep them
constantly engaged; hold out specious allurements,
and make them rush to any given point.

11. The art of war teaches us to rely not on the
likelihood of the enemy’s not coming, but on our own readiness
to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking,
but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

12. There are five dangerous faults which may affect
a general:
(1) Recklessness, which leads to destruction;
(2) cowardice, which leads to capture;
(3) a hasty temper, which can be provoked by insults;
(4) a delicacy of honor which is sensitive to shame;
(5) over-solicitude for his men, which exposes him
to worry and trouble.

13. These are the five besetting sins of a general,
ruinous to the conduct of war.

14. When an army is overthrown and its leader slain,
the cause will surely be found among these five
dangerous faults. Let them be a subject of meditation.

The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) – Chapter Six Arrangement

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Chapter Six

Arrangement

The test takers should get into the test location early than rush. The earlier arrival will at ease and get some rest before the test. The later arrival or just-on-time arrival will be tired and nervous, impacting their overall mentality to do the test. So the master LSAT takers direct the test rather than be directed.

So the good test takers are looking for a close test location to take the test. If it is not possible, just find a hotel to live the night before the test day. Thus if anything happen during the test, you can adjust to be most advantage to you whatsoever.

The relaxation just before the real test is important since the test is not only a physical challenge but also a mental test. You have to be relax and have enough sleep before you take the test. When doing the test, you need to answer the questions which are easiest to get it right for you, and answer some different questions later on. Then you will find a surprising result due to it, even though you skip some perhaps. So when you do all the LSAT without exhaustion, you will have better chance to get higher score than those feeling overwhelmed. When you are taking the test, you will get the best result. When you see the questions, the right answer will get out naturally.

Thus the good test takers will not get confused by the tedious languages; they will get the answers right even before the time is up.

It is very subtle and very amazing that the test seems becoming very easy. It is the key to get highest score.

Therefore, the strategy here is that the good test takers get all the easy answers right, and even though there might be the very hard questions, they can also get very high scores. Perhaps they need to guess for some questions, they prefer to use the elimination strategy to make an educated guess. Thus whenever good test takers are better at one question type than another, they can dig the right answers out even LSAC put that type at the last question. If the test takers are worse for one type of question, they will skip it first even though it is the first question in the section. Screw the numerical order of the questions in each section, but take the questions you are most at ease and therefore make sure it is right.

The good test takers are alive and the questions are just printout, dead. We are intelligent and can focus on our strength, but the LSAC cannot change the order, like computer-based GRE. Therefore we can target specific questions even in a reverse order, but there are no rules to prohibit us from doing it. Therefore, we turn the odds around to favor us. If so, the good test takers can get the most scores easily and correctly. There is no wonder that some of them can get the 179 or above. The LSAC only designed the test for the average people who LSAC expected to be around 150, 50 percentile. If that is the case, the LSAC will put more hard questions to limit the number of test takers to get higher score. If it is so some questions must be very easy to ace by most people. If you read it, if you know the essence of it, if you make use of it, and if you practice LSAT test with it, you will be several steps ahead of other people, and thus you will get most of the easy questions right. It is kind of the free gift of the LSAC; you are in a better position than average test takers to get higher score if you know this.

Thus, the secret of LSAT here is that you read the questions first before you read the passage. Doing so, you will be able to see the difficulty of questions and do the one which you are most comfortable with and skip the one with which you have most difficulties. You can turn to even the last page even if the LSAC left it there. You can find one no matter the LSAC put it on the first page of the section of the last page of the section, or no matter it is on the left hard of the question or the bottom right of the pages. All the questions are dead, but you are alive. You are in charge of the test rather than be led by the dead questions.

In addition, if you know each question types and you arrive early on the test day and relax well and confident, you can ace it no matter how the questions arranged in the real test day. If you cannot identify the question types, you cannot skip around and thus be induced by the attractiveness of the order; you will get confused and feel very tired when you move the end of each section. No matter how hard or how easy it is, you will get use the skipping around strategy to get the easy answer answered early and correctly.

Based on my experience, even those with 180 score, they are using this strategy, let alone others. Therefore, the LSAT can be aced by any of you no matter how hard it is; the key is to use the right strategy.

Therefore, planning the test and accessing your ability to ace the LSAT, skipping around so all the odds will favor you. If you will be getting tired at the end of each section and you will run out of time for the test, so you have to know when to take and when to skip. Knowing the different questions types even though they are asked differently, you will “smell” the right one it if you have practiced enough questions.

Furthermore, the best strategy of the secret of the LSAT is leverage yourself to a level to the extent that you do not have to think more than a second when reading the questions to figure out whether to skip. This intuition is out off the hundreds of questions practicing, and endless of practice day in and day out. By just reading the first few words in the choices, you will know whether the answer is correct or not.

Most people only see the 180 or 179 on the LSAT, and very desire for it. However, they do not know how hard they study and how systematically they analyze each question, and how many questions they have done, even how many times for even a question. Thus very few people get to the top, but practice and right strategy can get you there as long as you really understand the secret of the LSAT.

Therefore, answering the LSAT questions are like water moving downward. The test strategy is to avoid the hard questions and correctly answer easy ones. Skipping the hard ones and seizing the easy ones. Water is moving between banks. In the same principle, the good test takers can adopt the LSAT to ace it. Thus there is no unchanged principle or strategy to use, but the creative strategy to make the most score out of the LSAT. To use what you have learn to answer the questions that the LSAT presents; to use the unchanged secret of the LSAT to ace the derivatives of the LSAT. That is called secret of the secret of the LSAT.

To conclude here, there is no everlasting unchangeable and everything is comparable, just like the circle of the day and night.

To be continued….

The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) – Chapter Six

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DISCLAIMER: THE FOLLOWING TRANSLATION IS FROM THE OPEN DOMAIN AND MAY CONTAIN SIGNIFICANT ERRORS. THE EDITING IS IN PROCESS AND PLEASE USE IT WITH CAUTION.

VI. WEAK POINTS AND STRONG

 1. Sun Tzu said:  Whoever is first in the field and
    awaits the coming of the enemy, will be fresh for the fight;
    whoever is second in the field and has to hasten to battle
    will arrive exhausted.

 2. Therefore the clever combatant imposes his will on
    the enemy, but does not allow the enemy's will to be imposed on him.

 3. By holding out advantages to him, he can cause the enemy
    to approach of his own accord; or, by inflicting damage,
    he can make it impossible for the enemy to draw near.

 4. If the enemy is taking his ease, he can harass him;
    if well supplied with food, he can starve him out;
    if quietly encamped, he can force him to move.

 5. Appear at points which the enemy must hasten to defend;
    march swiftly to places where you are not expected.

 6. An army may march great distances without distress,
    if it marches through country where the enemy is not.

 7. You can be sure of succeeding in your attacks
    if you only attack places which are undefended.You can
    ensure the safety of your defense if you only hold
    positions that cannot be attacked.

 8. Hence that general is skillful in attack whose
    opponent does not know what to defend; and he is skillful
    in defense whose opponent does not know what to attack.

 9. O divine art of subtlety and secrecy!  Through you
    we learn to be invisible, through you inaudible;
    and hence we can hold the enemy's fate in our hands.

10. You may advance and be absolutely irresistible,
    if you make for the enemy's weak points; you may retire
    and be safe from pursuit if your movements are more rapid
    than those of the enemy.

11. If we wish to fight, the enemy can be forced
    to an engagement even though he be sheltered behind a high
    rampart and a deep ditch.  All we need do is attack
    some other place that he will be obliged to relieve.

12. If we do not wish to fight, we can prevent
    the enemy from engaging us even though the lines
    of our encampment be merely traced out on the ground.
    All we need do is to throw something odd and unaccountable
    in his way.

13. By discovering the enemy's dispositions and remaining
    invisible ourselves, we can keep our forces concentrated,
    while the enemy's must be divided.

14. We can form a single united body, while the
    enemy must split up into fractions.  Hence there will
    be a whole pitted against separate parts of a whole,
    which means that we shall be many to the enemy's few.

15. And if we are able thus to attack an inferior force
    with a superior one, our opponents will be in dire straits.

16. The spot where we intend to fight must not be
    made known; for then the enemy will have to prepare
    against a possible attack at several different points;
    and his forces being thus distributed in many directions,
    the numbers we shall have to face at any given point will
    be proportionately few.

17. For should the enemy strengthen his van,
    he will weaken his rear; should he strengthen his rear,
    he will weaken his van; should he strengthen his left,
    he will weaken his right; should he strengthen his right,
    he will weaken his left.  If he sends reinforcements everywhere,
    he will everywhere be weak.

18. Numerical weakness comes from having to prepare
    against possible attacks; numerical strength, from compelling
    our adversary to make these preparations against us.

19. Knowing the place and the time of the coming battle,
    we may concentrate from the greatest distances in order
    to fight.

20. But if neither time nor place be known,
    then the left wing will be impotent to succor the right,
    the right equally impotent to succor the left, the van
    unable to relieve the rear, or the rear to support the van.
    How much more so if the furthest portions of the army are
    anything under a hundred LI apart, and even the nearest
    are separated by several LI!

21. Though according to my estimate the soldiers
    of Yueh exceed our own in number, that shall advantage
    them nothing in the matter of victory.  I say then
    that victory can be achieved.

22. Though the enemy be stronger in numbers, we may
    prevent him from fighting.  Scheme so as to discover
    his plans and the likelihood of their success.

23. Rouse him, and learn the principle of his
    activity or inactivity.  Force him to reveal himself,
    so as to find out his vulnerable spots.

24. Carefully compare the opposing army with your own,
    so that you may know where strength is superabundant
    and where it is deficient.

25. In making tactical dispositions, the highest pitch
    you can attain is to conceal them; conceal your dispositions,
    and you will be safe from the prying of the subtlest spies,
    from the machinations of the wisest brains.

26. How victory may be produced for them out of the enemy's
    own tactics--that is what the multitude cannot comprehend.

27. All men can see the tactics whereby I conquer,
    but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory
    is evolved.

28. Do not repeat the tactics which have gained
    you one victory, but let your methods be regulated
    by the infinite variety of circumstances.

29. Military tactics are like unto water; for water in its
    natural course runs away from high places and hastens downwards.

30. So in war, the way is to avoid what is strong
    and to strike at what is weak.

31. Water shapes its course according to the nature
    of the ground over which it flows; the soldier works
    out his victory in relation to the foe whom he is facing.

32. Therefore, just as water retains no constant shape,
    so in warfare there are no constant conditions.

33. He who can modify his tactics in relation to his
    opponent and thereby succeed in winning, may be called
    a heaven-born captain.

34. The five elements (water, fire, wood, metal, earth)
    are not always equally predominant; the four seasons make
    way for each other in turn.  There are short days and long;
    the moon has its periods of waning and waxing.

The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) – Chapter Five

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DISCLAIMER: THE FOLLOWING TRANSLATION IS FROM THE OPEN DOMAIN AND MAY CONTAIN SIGNIFICANT ERRORS. THE EDITING IS IN PROCESS AND PLEASE USE IT WITH CAUTION.

 

V. ENERGY

 1. Sun Tzu said:  The control of a large force
    is the same principle as the control of a few men:
    it is merely a question of dividing up their numbers.

 2. Fighting with a large army under your command
    is nowise different from fighting with a small one:
    it is merely a question of instituting signs and signals.

 3. To ensure that your whole host may withstand
    the brunt of the enemy's attack and remain unshaken--
    this is effected by maneuvers direct and indirect.

 4. That the impact of your army may be like a grindstone
    dashed against an egg--this is effected by the science
    of weak points and strong.

 5. In all fighting, the direct method may be used
    for joining battle, but indirect methods will be needed
    in order to secure victory.

 6. Indirect tactics, efficiently applied, are inexhaustible
    as Heaven and Earth, unending as the flow of rivers and streams;
    like the sun and moon, they end but to begin anew;
    like the four seasons, they pass away to return once more.

 7. There are not more than five musical notes,
    yet the combinations of these five give rise to more
    melodies than can ever be heard.

 8. There are not more than five primary colors
    (blue, yellow, red, white, and black), yet in combination
    they produce more hues than can ever been seen.

 9. There are not more than five cardinal tastes
    (sour, acrid, salt, sweet, bitter), yet combinations
    of them yield more flavors than can ever be tasted.

10. In battle, there are not more than two methods
    of attack--the direct and the indirect; yet these two
    in combination give rise to an endless series of maneuvers.

11. The direct and the indirect lead on to each other in turn.
    It is like moving in a circle--you never come to an end.
    Who can exhaust the possibilities of their combination?

12. The onset of troops is like the rush of a torrent
    which will even roll stones along in its course.

13. The quality of decision is like the well-timed
    swoop of a falcon which enables it to strike and destroy
    its victim.

14. Therefore the good fighter will be terrible
    in his onset, and prompt in his decision.

15. Energy may be likened to the bending of a crossbow;
    decision, to the releasing of a trigger.

16. Amid the turmoil and tumult of battle, there may
    be seeming disorder and yet no real disorder at all;
    amid confusion and chaos, your array may be without head
    or tail, yet it will be proof against defeat.

17. Simulated disorder postulates perfect discipline,
    simulated fear postulates courage; simulated weakness
    postulates strength.

18. Hiding order beneath the cloak of disorder is
    simply a question of subdivision; concealing courage under
    a show of timidity presupposes a fund of latent energy;
    masking strength with weakness is to be effected
    by tactical dispositions.

19. Thus one who is skillful at keeping the enemy
    on the move maintains deceitful appearances, according to
    which the enemy will act.  He sacrifices something,
    that the enemy may snatch at it.

20. By holding out baits, he keeps him on the march;
    then with a body of picked men he lies in wait for him.

21. The clever combatant looks to the effect of combined
    energy, and does not require too much from individuals.
    Hence his ability to pick out the right men and utilize
    combined energy.

22. When he utilizes combined energy, his fighting
    men become as it were like unto rolling logs or stones.
    For it is the nature of a log or stone to remain
    motionless on level ground, and to move when on a slope;
    if four-cornered, to come to a standstill, but if
    round-shaped, to go rolling down.

23. Thus the energy developed by good fighting men
    is as the momentum of a round stone rolled down a mountain
    thousands of feet in height.  So much on the subject
    of energy.

 

The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) – Chapter Five

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Chapter Five

Force

The practice of a typical question is no difference than do a dozen; it is just a matter of the proportion of the numbers. The practice of all questions is the same as practice the only very representative question types; it is just a matter of the skills and ways of thinking—the lawyers’ way—you need. In order to get the highest score, the good test takers are dividing the questions in each section into different segments. You are set to win big by winning small. Whenever needed, you can use the strategy of one question to answer the similar type in the same setting. To answer each question, you need to be more flexible than only using the dogma without change. It is called innovation or creativity. All the question types are only either single or mixed.

Doing test, the good test takers are always creative to answer questions, but the normal test takers are just simply match strategy to each question type without flexibility. Thus the creative test takers are like the shape of the sky or that of sand in the earth, it is changeable. It is also like the water in the sea, which is unexhausted. The creativity is just like the days and nights, the end of one day is the beginning of the next. The sunset of the day means the moonrise of the night. The end of the winter leads to the start of the spring. For example, the music notes are just CDEFGAB, but the sheet music is numerous, and all the great works are only based on these simple notes. The basic color is only 7, but the change of the basis light up this beautiful world. “There are not more than five cardinal tastes sour, acrid, salt, sweet, bitter), yet combinations of them yield more flavors than can ever be tasted.” In the LSAT, there are only very limited questions types, but the derivatives are numerous. The visible question type or the mixed ones are intertwined together, like the circle within which you cannot find an edge. Thus you need the creativity and flexibility.

The reason why the rush of the torrent can roll over huge heavy stones is that the force of the water is in its course. The reason why the swoop of a falcon can strike and destroy its predators is the speed is like super fast. So the questions came down to the LSAT, good test takers are using the force to ace each questions and answer each questions very fast—fast reading and fast selecting answers. “Energy may be likened to the bending of a crossbow; decision, to the releasing of a trigger.”

Among all the questions in the real LSAT on test day, there seems to be questions without clear question types but they are under all known questions types. For all confusion and chaos, you may not be able to see the exact question type as you previous see and yet it is just the small derivatives of each question you have ever done. It is very easy and you do not have to be frightened by the exam. The principle of the question type does not change but the format, and thus the good test takers need to calm down to figure out what the test makers are trying to portrait in the mixed.

In the real exam, the LSAT master can always see the question types in existing questions, but it is not the case for most average people. They can always creatively use the strategy in the practice test rather than average-scorers’ using only the doctrine. They can always at ease no matter how confusing the questions are. “Simulated disorder postulates perfect discipline, simulated fear postulates courage; simulated weakness postulates strength.”

Therefore, not confusing by the tedious language of the questions, good test takers should move the sentence around. If you rearrange and use your own words to translate long sentences, you will take the full advantage. If you become very clear even though LSAC tried to confuse you, and skip around questions to answer the easiest question first, you will be the master of the LSAT.

To conclude here, the good test takers do never blame the questions if they are hard or the LSAC are stupid, but they do find tactics to ace each question by using their strategies learned in the practice questions. Those can make a call based upon the different questions and creatively answer rearranged the questions. Answering hard questions in the LSAT is similar to moving a heavy rock; you need to use the round wood as a tool to roll it rather than dragging it. “For it is the nature of a log or stone to remain motionless on level ground, and to move when on a slope; if four-cornered, to come to a standstill, but if round-shaped, to go rolling down.” Thus good test takers with highest score would be like roll to move a solid and heavy stones in the highest mountain; it is all about the force or energy….

To Be Continued….

The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) – Chapter Four Practice

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Chapter Four

Practice

In the LSAT history, a good test taker presumes s/he is going to fail while the test is really hard. To arm test takers against failure lies in our own hands, but the difficulty of the questions is provided by the LSAC itself. Thus, a good test taker will strengthen and secure them while weakening the positions of the difficulty of the tests. Thus you can hope to win but there is no guarantee of winning. If you assess that you will lose, just wait for longer before you take the real test. If you think you can ace it, go ahead and take it. If you hold then you need to force you to practice more tests; if you decide to take the test, then you need to be confident to ace it. Those who do not feel comfortable to do the real test just go ahead and delay the LSAT while those who are good at taking the LSAT just move on and ace it. It is the strategy of defense and attack, in similar words, hope for the best while preparing for the worst.

To know what other people have known is not a master LSAT taker. To ace the test without knowing why one did it is not a master test taker. It is just like to lift a hair cannot be called great strength, to see the sun or moon cannot be regarded as sharp sight. To hear the sound of thunder is no sign of a quick ear. The LSAT masters are getting very high score without any exhaustion or feeling bad. The good test taker who gets the highest score will not necessary the smartest or the bravest. The reason of getting 180 is to seize the right opportunity to win. Therefore, the good test takers are good at securing their own advantage – knowing which questions are easy and which are hard, but protecting their disadvantage – practicing more wrong questions. Thus, the good test takers are winners before they take the test. The losers lose before they take the test in the same way. Therefore, those who are good at the LSAT are stimulating the desire to ace it and practice more to get the feeling to do so. Thus they ace the LSAT methodologically.

The method of the exam is that: measurement, estimation, calculation, balancing and victory. The practice leads to measurement; measurement leads to estimation, estimation leads to calculation.…

In addition, the good test takers are good at detailed things; in contrast, losers do not care tiny things at all.

In conclusion, the secret here is that: the winners are practice and practice to arm its brain to win the Law School Admission Test (LSAT); it is all the practice.

The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) – Chapter Three

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DISCLAIMER: THE FOLLOWING TRANSLATION IS FROM THE OPEN DOMAIN AND MAY CONTAIN SIGNIFICANT ERRORS. THE EDITING IS IN PROCESS AND PLEASE USE IT WITH CAUTION.

III. ATTACK BY STRATAGEM

1. Sun Tzu said: In the practical art of war, the best
thing of all is to take the enemy’s country whole and intact;
to shatter and destroy it is not so good. So, too, it is
better to recapture an army entire than to destroy it,
to capture a regiment, a detachment or a company entire
than to destroy them.

2. Hence to fight and conquer in all your battles
is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists
in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting.

3. Thus the highest form of generalship is to
balk the enemy’s plans; the next best is to prevent
the junction of the enemy’s forces; the next in
order is to attack the enemy’s army in the field;
and the worst policy of all is to besiege walled cities.

4. The rule is, not to besiege walled cities if it
can possibly be avoided. The preparation of mantlets,
movable shelters, and various implements of war, will take
up three whole months; and the piling up of mounds over
against the walls will take three months more.

5. The general, unable to control his irritation,
will launch his men to the assault like swarming ants,
with the result that one-third of his men are slain,
while the town still remains untaken. Such are the disastrous
effects of a siege.

6. Therefore the skillful leader subdues the enemy’s
troops without any fighting; he captures their cities
without laying siege to them; he overthrows their kingdom
without lengthy operations in the field.

7. With his forces intact he will dispute the mastery
of the Empire, and thus, without losing a man, his triumph
will be complete. This is the method of attacking by stratagem.

8. It is the rule in war, if our forces are ten
to the enemy’s one, to surround him; if five to one,
to attack him; if twice as numerous, to divide our army
into two.

9. If equally matched, we can offer battle;
if slightly inferior in numbers, we can avoid the enemy;
if quite unequal in every way, we can flee from him.

10. Hence, though an obstinate fight may be made
by a small force, in the end it must be captured
by the larger force.

11. Now the general is the bulwark of the State;
if the bulwark is complete at all points; the State will
be strong; if the bulwark is defective, the State will
be weak.

12. There are three ways in which a ruler can bring
misfortune upon his army:–

13. (1) By commanding the army to advance or to retreat,
being ignorant of the fact that it cannot obey.
This is called hobbling the army.

14. (2) By attempting to govern an army in the
same way as he administers a kingdom, being ignorant
of the conditions which obtain in an army. This causes
restlessness in the soldier’s minds.

15. (3) By employing the officers of his army
without discrimination, through ignorance of the
military principle of adaptation to circumstances.
This shakes the confidence of the soldiers.

16. But when the army is restless and distrustful,
trouble is sure to come from the other feudal princes.
This is simply bringing anarchy into the army, and flinging
victory away.

17. Thus we may know that there are five essentials
for victory:
(1) He will win who knows when to fight and when
not to fight.
(2) He will win who knows how to handle both superior
and inferior forces.
(3) He will win whose army is animated by the same
spirit throughout all its ranks.
(4) He will win who, prepared himself, waits to take
the enemy unprepared.
(5) He will win who has military capacity and is
not interfered with by the sovereign.

18. Hence the saying: If you know the enemy
and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a
hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy,
for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat.
If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will
succumb in every battle.

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