Bankruptcy Sales

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By Melissa B. Jacoby (University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill) and Edward J. Janger (Brooklyn Law School)

Bankruptcy courts have become fora for the sale of entire firms as going concerns, as well as for the liquidation of assets piecemeal. This book chapter teases out the advantages and disadvantages of conducting such sales under federal bankruptcy law as compared to state law. We first describe the forms that bankruptcy sales can take, and the contexts in which they occur. Next, we explore the concept of “bankruptcy created value,” identifying the ways in which the federal bankruptcy process can create value over and above what can be realized through compulsory state processes. We then identify several procedural and governance-based concerns about all-asset sales. We suggest that our recent proposal, the Ice Cube Bond, might address concerns about sales of substantially all assets by withholding a portion of the sale proceeds. To recover the withheld funds, claimants would have to establish that the sale did not harm the bankruptcy estate and that they would be legally entitled to the funds under the normal bankruptcy priority rules or pursuant to an agreement reached after the sale. To conclude, we explore the related issues of credit bidding and the permissible scope of sale orders that declare assets to be “free and clear” of various kinds of claims and property interests.

The full chapter may be found here.

This draft chapter has been accepted for publication by Edward Elgar Publishing in the forthcoming Corporate Bankruptcy Handbook, edited by Barry Adler, due to be published in 2017.

Successor Liability in § 363 Sales

By Michael L. Cook of Schulte, Roth & Zabel LLP

Bankruptcy Code §363(f)(1) empowers a bankruptcy court to order a debtor’s assets sold “free and clear of any interest in such property.” Courts in the business bankruptcy context have been wrestling with successor liability, i.e., whether an asset buyer can be held liable for the debtor-seller’s liabilities. In 2009, the Second Circuit affirmed a bankruptcy court order barring creditors of the selling debtor from pursuing the asset buyer “for product defects in vehicles produced by” the debtor. In re Chrysler LLC, 576 F.3d 108, 123-24 (2d Cir. 2009), vacated as moot, 558 U.S. 1087 (2009) (held, successor liability claims are interests covered by a sale order under Code § 363(f)(1)).

Most recently, on July 13, 2016, the Second Circuit held that the bankruptcy court’s asset sale order in the General Motors reorganization case limiting specific pre-bankruptcy product liability claims required prior “actual or direct mail notice” to claimants when the debtor “knew or reasonably should have known about the claims.” In re Motors Liquidation Co., 2016 U.S. App. LEXIS 12848, *46-47 (2d Cir. July 13, 2016). Although the substance of the sale order may have been enforceable otherwise, “mere publication notice” to known or knowable claimants was insufficient. Had the complaining product liability claimants received adequate notice, reasoned the court, they “could have had some negotiating leverage [regarding the terms of any sale order] . . . and [a meaningful] opportunity to participate in the proceedings.” Id. at *61. The court noted a “trend…toward a more expansive reading of ‘interests in property’ which encompasses other obligations that may flow from ownership of the property.” Id., at 124, citing In re Trans World Airlines, Inc., 322 F. 3d 283, 285-90 (3d Cir. 2003).

The full memo is available here.

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