Foundation of Education: Part 7

This edition of the standards for Academic Professional instruction in the Foundation of Education is being presented to the educational community by the council of learned societies in education (CLSE) on behalf of the council’s twenty-member societies. The American Educational Studies Education developed the first standards and published them in 1977-1978. The original standards were republished in 1986 with a new introduction by CLOSE through the Plakken publication. This booklet was circulated widely in various educational departments, including colleges of education, national accreditation agencies, and the state department of education.This edition of the standards for Academic Professional instruction in the Foundation of Education is being presented to the educational community by the council of learned societies in education (CLSE) on behalf of the council’s twenty-member societies. The American Educational Studies Education developed the first standards and published them in 1977-1978. The original standards were republished in 1986 with a new introduction by CLOSE through the Plakken publication. This booklet was circulated widely in various educational departments, including colleges of education, national accreditation agencies, and the state department of education.

Mentioned below are the purposes of the Standards:

Purposes of the Standards:

The original standards were specially designed to inform the evaluation criteria published by the national, regional, and state accreditation agencies, state department of educations, local education agencies, teacher organizations, and teacher centres. The standards included the treatments of the following educational components that are mentioned below.

● Initial teacher certification
● Professional development
● Non-foundations graduate degrees and programs
● Graduate degrees and programs that were offered jointly by foundations and other faculty
● Master and educational specialist degree and program in the foundations
● Preparation of the faculty
● Professional development of the faculty

The second edition throws light on these components while providing more significant emphasis on defining the foundation of education. It also emphasizes foundational studies in preparing such school professionals as psychologists, counselors, and administrators. A new standard was created to capture the emphasis, which brought the total to eight components. The underlying assumption for the standards in each area is that a vital correlation exists among educators, scholarly qualification professionals, professional judgments, and professional performance. However, the last cannot be reduced to a prescribed set of behaviors or standardized performance levels. Informed judgment is essential for a good program assessment, and the standards are designed for the same. The main objective of these standards is to promote quality instructions and to learn in foundational studies. This is to guarantee the students that they have opportunities to acquire normative, interpretive, and critical perspectives towards education. This can be achieved through rigorous study and field experiences for the best results.

Role of Humanities and Social Sciences:

When the standards were first developed, it was to ascertain the critical role of the humanities and social sciences in preparing educational professionals for the best results. It was also introduced to address the failure of accreditation criteria to distinguish between the social and behavioral sciences in foundational studies. The original standards emphasized that instruction in the behavioral sciences, which were easily represented by foundational studies in educational psychology, was not an acceptable substitute for foundational studies in humanities and social sciences. In the second edition, the conviction is sustained.

The educators of tomorrow will need studies in the ethical, philosophical, historical, and cultural foundations of education to make the right decisions and be informed about their knowledge. There have been several diversities in the past years but what remains prominent amidst this diversity is that a more systematic and theoretically sound assessment of teachers and teachers programs is essential to improve the education in the country. There has been the establishment of the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards. The great majority of states have decided to establish a formal partnership agreement with the National Council of Accreditation of Teachers Education. There might be consequences for what has been included and omitted from teacher’s preparation programs and curricula. However, there has been the implementation of several associations to manage the foundations of education. CLOSE organized support for the member societies to affiliate as a member of NCATE and a voting seat and one of NCATEs 5 governing bodies in the late 1980s due to the growing emphasis on evaluation of teachers and teacher’s preparation programs. The five governing bodies are Executive, Unit Accreditation, State Partnership, Speciality Area Studies, and Appeals. CLSE in the early 1990s has shown great efforts in exercising its voice effectively in NCATE deliberations and decision-making. With the help of the CLSE, there have been several developments and arrangements in the Standards of education that are being imparted to the teachers and their entire community for the best results. Education standards are clearly defined, which went through several changes in recent years trying to offer teachers and other teaching faculty the suitable medium to approach and teach students.

Deliberation of CLOSE Task Force:

In 1992, CLSE formed a task force responsible for re-examining the standards in the changes in teacher education. The task force’s responsibility was to consider how the standards adequately reflected the issues that were being debated in member societies and national credentialing and accreditation forums of CLSE. This was concerning the role of the foundations in teacher education and recommended the changes wherever necessary. The task force’s deliberation was assisted by special issues of teacher’s college records and educational foundations. Both of these associations were devoted to a re-examination of the role of the foundations in teacher preparation. The result of broad consolation of the Taskforce among member societies of CLSE is the second edition of the standards. The revision presented the original edition of the standards and preservation of the same and clarified the role and nature of foundational studies in professional preparation programs. As per CLSE, it is believed that the second edition will be of particular assistance to those who are seeking to evaluate the teachers and teacher preparation and development programs. This will also benefit anyone who is engaged in preparing educators to understand and respond to the social contexts that offer meaning to education both inside and outside the school.


The main objective of the Standards is to promote quality instructions and to learn in foundational studies. It also means to guarantee to the extent possible that teachers have preservice and professional development opportunities to acquire normative, interpretive, and critical perspectives on education, which is possible through rigorous studies and supervised field experiences. The main objective of the standards is clearly defined to develop the means of teaching and offering standards to teachers and their entire community for the best results.

Foundation of Education: Part 6

The emergence of school education could be traced back to the ancient age. However, the ancient schooling system was different from the modern ones. What did students in the ancient school do? Did the teachers impart lectures to these students? Was there any rule of arriving at the school on time? Most of us do not know about the ancient schooling environment. A brief overview of ancient schools would let you understand the evolution of the academic system.

No rules about school timing-

There is very few evidence on how ancient schools worked and made their students educated. Still, some reliable sources say that ancient educational institutions set no time to start and end the schooling hours. Every pupil used to get into the school at any time. While entering the classroom, pupils used to greet teachers and other students in the classroom. Thus, this ancient schooling and teaching system were not much organized. You cannot find any match with the modern educational system.

What educational tools were available to pupils in the ancient school?

As it is about ancient education, there was no paper. While children in the modern age use papers, pens, and pencils, ancient students had different writing tools. They used to rely on wax tablets, papyrus, and reed pens to write something.

Sumerians chose clay to write on it. Cuneiform, a type of writing, was prevalent among them. In the ancient age, there were mostly wooden and metal tools. Thus, ancient pupils could not find smooth writing opportunities with pens. However, some evidence says that students used to rely on quill pens to create Roman-style graffiti. This is a writing tool designed with moulted flight feathers of a bird. Before the invention of the modern metal nibbed pen and fountain pen, this pen was highly popular.

One of the best aspects of ancient schooling systems is that teachers used to take individual approaches to teach students. When a child has special needs, they choose different learning styles. But, they did not like to draw a clear line differentiating special children from normal ones. Thus, children who had some deficiencies in some respect could avoid problems in the educational world. They had never felt frustrated due to these deficiencies. However, you can find this trend in the modern education world. It is one of the similarities between ancient and modern educational techniques for special and normal children.

Was there any classroom blackboard in the ancient age?

In the ancient age, as there was no blackboard, clay tablets were popular. Students in ancient Sumeria and Babylonia used these clay tablets for inscribing their everyday lessons. The wet tablets may be erased for reusing purposes. However, the baked clay creates a permanent document. These tablets were similar to modern-day blackboards.

In the 18th century, American and European students started using slates and coated wooden pieces. Ink and paper were costly. However, wood and slate were cheap options at that time. However, they are not a very efficient mode for writing something.

In due course, there was an evolution of blackboard designs. After the 1960s, you could notice a chance, as the green board was invented for students. It was a coated steel plated with porcelain-based enamel. It had undergone some refinements, as chalk powder did not show while erased. The use of green colour was highly pleasing. But, it was lightweight and highly durable.

Thus, it can be said that the classroom environment in the ancient age was different from what we find in the modern days. There was a slow evolution of classroom education to bring innovations.

Foundation of Education: Part 5

The foundation of education is quite similar to the strong foundation we build for our homes to last for several decades together. The early foundation of learning plays a prominent role in the child’s later learning. If the early foundations of education are strong, the child can adapt and thrive in the future, which is remarkable. Only the curriculum and content cannot decide or discover the full potential in children. What is vital is nurturing the child’s life skills that will be essential in the future.

Developing the skills of the children and giving them time to learn is what creates a strong foundation in children. Children take time to learn at the initial stages, and as an educationist, it is essential to allow children to learn and grow at their own pace for the best results. This helps them to make correct decisions in the future and be creative thinkers. What is essential to build a strong foundation for education in children is to be ascertained by the educationists for the best results.

Educationists should emphasize building a solid foundation for specific activities such as painting, singing, running, and playing. These are what children love to do when they start learning, and offering them the right platform is how they nurture themselves and improve in the future. Many may say that these are simple activities and do not hold much value, but for a child, during their learning phase, these activities have an indispensable role to play. As educationists, it is essential to understand the core value of importance these activities have for the best results.

Activities such as playing, painting, singing, and running are crucial for developing the foundation in a child. It helps build specific skills early, such as cognitive, emotional, and social skills. Apart from these, the child also builds their speaking skills, communicating skills, visual skills and listening skills. The activities mentioned above do not need any classroom to teach the children to build their foundation and are of paramount importance.

One of the most crucial things in a child’s life is playing. Play should be given priority when dealing with children for the best results. Play cannot be ignored or not given importance in a child’s life if you are looking forward to building a solid foundation. This is because play builds the child’s physical wellness and has a lot of importance in building reasonability and more profound thinking capacity. The importance of free play in a child’s educational foundation is paramount. An unstructured, child-initiated and voluntary activity helps the child imagine, explore, and experience the world surrounding them. Free play also helps children to develop independent thinking and improve their social and collaborative play skills. These skills would be essential for the child in later life.

The foundation of education prepares a child with the tools, knowledge and confidence to be ready in life. A foundation education for children is the one that helps develop their life skills apart from the classroom education has to offer. If given all the priorities mentioned above, a child will help them thrive and develop their full potential in life.

Every child has a dream, and to realize this dream, it is essential to develop critical skills in analytical thinking, digital learning and teamwork. With play as a crucial factor, children develop teamwork, which is essential to succeed in any format of life.

Offering children an environment that is positive, productive, and encouraging will help them gain their foundation of education properly. The foundation of education is carefully structured and developed in such a manner so that they get the best exploratory start to life. The foundation of education holds the key to unlock every child’s true potential.

The foundation of education – Part 4

The educational system in the modern age is highly different from what we find in the ancient age. The modern educational system is highly organized, and when we talk about education, it reminds us of the social institution. Children in the society have to go to institutions to learn something new. You can now find these academic institutions in every developed and developing country. A country should use its wealth for the development and refinement of education. The growing value of education has led to the introduction of formal schooling trends.

Education- Formal versus informal systems-

Education is not all about the major academic concepts created in a classroom. Children can learn something new from their societies. We can categorize learning system in two ways-

Formal education is related to academic concepts and facts due to the formal curriculum. Ancient Greek philosophers and thinkers formalized learning methods. Nowadays, formal education constitutes a curriculum that the children have to follow. This education enables students to get basic knowledge.

The second category is informal education that reveals the way of learning cultural norms and values. Informal education helps you to learn the way of performing your routine tasks, preparing foods, and choosing the right dress for every occasion.

Another term relevant in this respect is cultural transmission. It indicates the way we learn values and social norms. Both formal and informal educational systems include it.

The introduction of classroom-based education-

The classroom-based education had started gaining importance due to the increasing need for achieving academic goals. Before the 1970s, education used to provide a foundation of common ethics and principles. It prepares learners to face real-life situations. However, you can notice a shift in the educational goals. It resulted in the beginning of classroom-based education.

Classroom design- Some historical facts and information-

Looking back at the 19th and 20th centuries, you could find that students had to learn more to be highly self-sufficient. The primary focus of these students should be to read, write and do arithmetic. Morality and manners are also a part of their lessons.

Horace Mann, one of the educational reformers, had introduced a one-room schoolhouse concept. In due course, legal rules had been imposed to make the educational system more standardized. The classroom design turned out to be more efficient, and instructors started using desks while teaching students. By making education more organized, students got a chance to prepare for jobs in the future.

You could notice a significant change in the concept of classroom-based education. Originally, there was teacher-centric education, and now, it is student-oriented. In due course, several school buildings were established. Government-funded initiatives help in the renovation of schools. Educational reformers recommended the proper arrangement of desks in every classroom. They also talked about the importance of open space and outdoor learning.

However, during the post-World War II, educators took the initiatives to add educational facilities. School architects in the pre-war era continued retaining student-friendly classrooms. But, some architects started following the older classroom layouts.

You have found a brief discussion about the introduction of classroom-based education. The educational landscape is dynamic, and you will see lots of changes in the academic world. The modern world has braced student-centered learning, and the learning spaces have become more space. Educational specialists are trying to reimagine the modern classroom design to make the learning process easier.

Although you are aware of the innovative learning systems, you may not know about traditional classroom-based education. It is important to learn how this classroom education started. The above discussion will help you to learn a lot about it.

Few Handy Tips for Your Foundation

Choosing a suitable university might be one of the toughest decisions. This is such a standing point in your career. You are bound to feel the pressure but with a little guidance, you can make the correct decision. You might feel a little overwhelmed if you don’t know how to start. Choosing a suitable university might be one of the toughest decisions. This is such a standing point in your career. You are bound to feel the pressure but with a little guidance, you can make the correct decision. You might feel a little overwhelmed if you don’t know how to start.

If you break down your requirements into points it will be helpful. Now the question arises what are the requirements? Let’s further discuss the topic.

Why is choosing the right University important?

Your university is your alma mater, your brand. Your university is not only where you get your education. In your university, you nurture your various skills, be it sports or soft skills, anything.

A qualification from a reputed University attracts various employers. Reputed Universities are a few in the country and it’s hard to get in but not impossible. If you can’t find yourself this guide might help you find the right one.

Few Handy Tips

  • Time Span Required: Consider the time it will take to reach your university. You can have different preferences. Generally, far away universities are a little expensive but if you are keen then it’s just right.
    You can choose a university that’s close to your hometown. This way it costs less also you reach home early and save time.
  • Site of the University: You can be an introvert, extrovert, or an ambivert person. Choose the location according to your preferences.

    If you like large towns, big cities and traveling choose a University there. Or you can easily choose one in the calm and quietness of your own safe place.

  • Course Material: One of the most important parts of choosing the right University. Look for the course you want to study and choose accordingly.

    Usually, the universities offer various course counselors as well. If you aren’t predetermined about what to study they can help you. Select a university that’s fluid in nature and allows you to pursue your interest.

  • Funding and Cost: Every student has different financial conditions. Choose a university depending upon what you can afford. If you stay in your hometown it’ll a lot cost less than studying abroad.

    If you really want to pursue a top abroad university try for scholarships. Apart from that various institutions offer to fund or there are student loans. Don’t let money come in between your dreams, keep trying.

  • Accommodation: If you are pursuing a course abroad you are likely to stay at hostels or flats. Search if the rooms are good enough to be your home for the next few years. Try learning a few things like cooking, washing, and your basic routines. This might be probably your first time away from your hometown.
  • Socializing: Your alma mater is more than what is being offered in your course. Check out the various groups, societies, clubs your university offers. Throughout your life you must have had a hobby, this is time to explore it.

    Make the most out of your university days. Participate in organizing events and arranging them. Such events help you give an insight into the management.

  • Advice and Support: Your mental health truly matters. If you are studying abroad there might be certain thoughts or stress. Check if your university provides such services. Talking to them and sharing will benefit you and your confidence.

Look for the association or any unions specifically for mental health, join them if necessary.

In a world, with the Internet, there are millions of options in hand. It’s certain that you might feel overwhelmed, don’t let it get to you. Search thoroughly and ask yourself what you want. Get yourself the best university and start building your future.

Foundations of Education, All the Seekers Must Know!

You have probably heard a lot lately about the foundations of education and what they mean for the educated individual. Education is something that has been existing since the beginning of our being. It is a process that allows people to get from where they are now to where they want to be. Education is a very important factor in any person’s life. Here, we are not focusing on any set procedure to explain education’s foundations, rather mentioning some of the milestones without which one can never pursue the endless education aspects.

To understand it better, let’s discuss the multi-faceted foundations of education:

Access to Education
All the seekers should have proper access to education, allowing all individuals to participate in the programs, and making sure that each student gets the proper benefit from their learning. These are all important factors that help to ensure that education is beneficial to everyone. Therefore, these should not be taken lightly. Any student in any educational program must be able to access education and its benefits thoroughly.

First off, education is based on the idea that all people learn through some interaction. Various types of learning occur, such as sight, touch, and even hearing. Therefore, all students going through the schools are going through a variety of learning experiences based on interaction.

Learning Through Activities
Another of the foundations of education is determined by learning through activities. These include a teacher teaching a class, reading a book, watching a video, or doing something else. A student may also take part in some project. These are all forms of experiences that allow people to learn on their own and, in the process, develop certain skills that can be used later in life.

System & Resources
Some other things are important when it comes to what are the foundations of education. It is necessary to make sure that everyone has access to the same resources, which leads to an inclusive education system. Additionally, it is also crucial that all students get able to participate in innovative programs. The more participation the students have, the more they learn, and the more they benefit from the program overall. Therefore, if more people are getting involved with a program, they are more likely to learn something new, and they will be able to use this knowledge in their future life.

Summing Up
When people understand the foundations of education, it allows them to understand the world better and learn things that are not learned in the classroom. The problem is that it isn’t possible to explain the foundations of education in a single flow. It is a diversified attribute and needs the aspects that are collected from very deep. Understanding these educational elements from a global perspective can help develop relevant skills for addressing current educational issues and concerns.


Summary of Philosophies of Education – Part 3 on Foundations

This article will briefly attempt to summarize the views of the classics Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, eastern Confucius, and Lao Tzu and the Western Modern Locke, Pestalozzi, Rousseau, Froebel, and other philosophies of the Foundations of Education.

Let us revisit the classic foundations of Education from the first western world philosophers. The vision of these men comprises the foundations of the academic world as well as the values of the interaction for the learning process.

The first and foremost of these was Plato, he taught, focusing on that every man should devote his life to his talents, therefore for him, the importance of education is determining what each individual is capable by nature of doing best. The criticism of this model or philosophy is that it lacks leadership encouragement and carries probable wrong personal decisions. The Cave projection analogy by Plato taught us to separate from the world of ideas and visions of the mind, where physical objects are not permanent representations and ideas alone are true knowledge known by the mind.

For Plato, the concept of Social Justice is about just and fair retribution, to give what is due when is due to whom is due. Plato conducted an Intellect aristocracy as ruler of the intellectual elite of his time.

The second most renowned philosopher of Education would be Aristotle. In his philosophy, the end of education is not merely knowledge by itself but the convergence of the individual’s innate intellect and her/his will. There is a shift towards knowledge expressed as an action too. Now Virtue, understood as goodness, righteousness, and moral excellence is not merely the possession of knowledge anymore but the condition of the will.

According to Aristotle the process of thinking can be broken down to the rules like those of physics and geometry, and therefore can be taught to any mind. He advocated practicing moderation. Vices were already conceived as irrational practices because they often come from emotion which frequently goes beyond reason. Finally, his overall approach to Education is a scientific approach.

The third classic and no least important, is Socrates, a disciple of the previous who became as well into one of the most famous philosophers. In his view of Education, the Virtue of holding knowledge is better seen as wisdom, and the problem of ignorance results in the creation of evil. Ignorance is vice and Knowledge virtue. The art of living is managed through the right actions which come from the right knowledge viewed as wisdom.

Another renowned philosopher who influenced the Foundations of all Education especially in the East is Confucius. In Confucianism, the development of the moral and ethical principles serve to promote peace and order and also to preserve individual dignity. The importance of Family which serves as a model. And his golden postulate or rule for all men ”To treat others as you would like them to treat you”. For him, order and harmony begin in the inner nature of the individual.

The observance of God’s laws in the individual conscience will according to Confucius bring peace, harmony and happiness to man. Another of his celebrated postulates is “He who conquers others is strong, but he who conquers himself is greater” emphasizes the key role of self-control. In his philosophy, reason regulates and rules man’s lower passions and appetites. And justice and love go hand in hand.

Another main exponent of Far Eastern Philosophies is Lao-Tzu. His foundations are to emphasize the value of humility, frugality, and passivity, The way to achieve happiness is to live harmoniously within the Tao, governing principle of the universe, teachings. In fewer words, to be happy be natural, be yourself, live according to your true good nature.

Let us review quickly some of the main philosophies and vision of those who have also shaped the current view of Education but were not Classic Greeks nor Eastern.

These other main exponents of the Philosophies Founding Education came chronologically afterward and we will only attempt to mention their highlight or main value-added. The philosopher Comenius believed in the order of natural law. and promoted visual aid use in classrooms.

The French philosopher Locke emphasized formal morals and discipline therefore his Instruction methodology includes habit formation through drill and exercise, memorization, and reasoning.

Another French well-renowned philosophy shaper was Rousseau. He claimed that the individual is good and virtuous by nature. And that the individual possesses inherent endowments which should be nurtured.

The philosopher Pestalozzi Viewed education as an organized development social process in accordance with natural growth laws. Lessons came from direct experience through observation, inquiring, and reasoning. For him, the reality was objective and fixed based on natural law. And values were absolute. For the first time, the syllabus became more humanistic.

Another one was Froebel, also known as the “Father of Kindergarten” who was a supporter of creative classroom expression and the spirit of informality and joy in Education. The development came from self-activity where all individual differences were to be respected. Undeniably his contribution was to promote spontaneous activity to promote self-realization, in other words, to Educate through Playing.

These summarize the historical proponents of philosophies of Education from the Classical Greek, and from the Easter to the Western and some of the Modern. We have left minor but yet important shaper philosophers of Education out as Herbert, Spencer, or John Dewey to cover the following articles.

Foundations of Education – Part 2

In our previous article on Education Foundations we covered the interdisciplinary relations focusing on the basis, the different perspectives, and started the evolution of the Educational Schools of Thought from the Greeks, The Eastern, The Classic and up to the modern, please refer to that article as a introduction or complement to this continuation, in which the remaining of the Evolution of the Foundations of Education and School of thoughts

Education Foundations has all the angles and study disciplines entangled in it, from the Philosophical perspective, the following Major Schools of Philosophical Thought have shaped the Philosophy Behind Education and the whole of Education after all.

First, the Idealism, where ideas are believed to be enduring and the center of lives, where all existed within the mind of God and Man and none out of it. Its objective is to develop the spirit, mind and moral discovering and developing each person’s abilities and moral excellence through the Lecturing, Critical Discussions, Socratic Method, introspection, reflection on content such as literature, history and philosophy.

In this methodology the learner imitates the ideal of the teacher, striving towards his perfection, while The Teacher is the example of an excellent role model for the student- intellectually and morally. And to exercise great creative skills in providing opportunities for the learners’ minds to discover, analyze, synthesize and create, encouraging logical thinking to train future leaders, develop morality and values emphasizing on mind, character and discipline development.

Then came the School of Realism. Realism highlights that the world is made up of substantial and material real entities, so the sensory experience is where knowledge is derived, aiming to give students resources to survive the natural world, besides the lectures and inductive logic the sensory input was central, as were sciences and mathematics.

The learning or studying process has always been evolving, though not so many changes came after postmodernism, The Teacher is presented as a guide with mastery of the knowledge and expert in life reality who requires from the student to explain, compare and recall facts. Eventually interpreting relations and inferring new meanings.

Following the clash of the idealism and realism schools logically derived in the Pragmatism School of Education, also denominated Experimentalism. In it pragmatists believed teaching students to adjust to the demands of an ever changing world. The syllabus showed utilitarian and practical content. The teaching techniques at the time were the open discussion, individual problem-solving, research and Project Methodologies.

While the student found the experimental practical from experiencing interaction to the environment, capturing their own interests to build on them with the natural motivation, each learning style was accommodated. The main proponent of Pragmatism was John Dewey.

Afterwards came the Modern Philosophical School of Thoughts:

The Perrenialism who believed students are immersed in the study of profound and enduring ideas, that knowledge, those experiences which has endured time and space and should be the foundation of education.

Perrenialists will learn for its own sake to be true intellectuals aiming to develop the thinking power.One of it main proponents was Robert Hutchins. While the teacher is seen as interpreters of eternal truth the students are passive recipients. Time is spent teaching about concepts rather than in explaining how these are useful to students

The School of Essentialism was based on teaching the essential knowledge and basic skills to promote students’ intellectual growth. The main proponent was William Bagley. The teacher students dynamics was to receive instructions in skills as reading arithmetic and writing (3Rs) while the teacher focused on test score achievements to evaluate progress

The Progressivist School of Education is in the development process mainly. Progressivists focus on cultivation of individuality, experiences, abilities and interests. Progressivists aim at making school interesting and also useful. As well its aim is similar, trying to provide students with necessary skills to interact with and update the environment. Originally proposed by John Dewey and Johann Pestalozzi.

The Existentialism derived from the lack of perception of the presence of God after the World Wars where the Idea was to shape human life as it was being lived, in the existentialist philosophy knowledge is subjective and persons decisions make it up into experiences, varying from one person to another but always trying to find significance and meaning in our existence. The most famous proponent was Jean Paul Sartre. For the first time the trust of the teaching philosophy was fully deposited in the experimenting of the Learner where he/she determined their own rule, and the teacher works more as an aid assisting students in their own journeys.

The school of Social Reconstructionism which focussed on addressing social questions to construct a better society by improving human conditions and overcoming oppression. It’s main proponent was George Counts. Finally real and social problems such as international terrorism, hunger, inflation, discrimination, inequality and environmental problems are concerns.

These are up to now the main tendencies in philosophies of education. There are other instances at times when a different mechanic rules over the classroom experience. Take for instant these relevant philosophies which operate as philosophies of education in many classroom situations and historical social contexts. Some of these can be Reconstruction Existentialism Democracy Idealism Realism Humanism and Pragmatism, all are also different Philosophies applied in Education which will be discussed in another blog article.

There are plenty of other Authors who have studied, written and modified Educational Foundations and Philosophies, take for instance within the Liberal Philosophy of Education all renown proponents as are Plato, Buther, Froebel, Hegel, Herbart, Aristotle, Broudy, Berckeley, Aquinas, Martin, James, Pierce, Brameld, Peztalozzi, Dewey, Janes, Perce, Sartre, Marcel, Mowes, Soderquist among many others.

A note on Eastern Philosophies and Eastern Philosophies of Education must be made. Within these scope we will find: The Hinduism by world renowned pacifier Mahatma Gandhi, which enhance the commitment to an ideal life of honesty, self-control, purity, non- violence, courage, service and faith. This philosophy affected Education in that the knowledge is imparted by the teachers own life example and is as a Mahatma, responsible for the spiritual welfare of the learners. Thus, the teaching methods are memorizing and oral discussion and debates.

Buddhism , also a eastern religion based philosophy, believes in the law of karma and in the four noble truths. Its main proponent was Siddharta Gautama

The Confucianism is based on the teachings of Confucius, focussing on benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and sincerity as the five cardinal virtues. Also the Taoism by advocating simplicity, frugality, Let things come naturally (Wu Wei) of its main proponent who was Lau-Tzu. His ethics emphasized moderation, humility and compassion.

The Japanese Zen Buddhism which introduced the Third eye, to see the invisible around us by the mind awakening achieved through meditation.

Finally, in the middle east and part of the far east the Islam, which beleive in Allah thorugh its prophet Mohammed. The Islam in Education looks mostly at knowledge is necessary for the self and humanity promoting the adequate citizen.

All these schools of thoughts have built over the previous and tackling the new needs of society and history and those times. The fusion of all these is what we have today as the underlying basis for our modern contemporary philosophy of education.




Foundations of Education

The importance of Educational Foundations is to strengthen and maintain the role of disciplines and strong basis, the cornerstone of Educations ideas and practice, rooting from the interaction among teachers, staff, students in all its diverse modes in and out the classes, in the preparation of educational staff aimed to enhance the analysis and study of the quality of the education and its policymaking.

The foundations of educational studies and education policy studies involve the analysis of the development and practicing of education using disciplines such as philosophy, anthropology, history, psychology, sociology, social psychology, political science, and economics, and also interdisciplinary fields such as international and comparative education, multicultural education, community or adult education, and others. Foundational studies in Education are at a constant testing of the nature of assumptions regarding all types of schooling effects on our lives.

In further defining Foundations of Education it can be conceived as a broad field of Educational Study flowing from methodology from other academic disciplines and combinations of them. Bare in mind that the study in Education Foundations is not an “Introduction to Education” coursework which is taught by well trained professionals in Foundations of Education.unless such study clearly addresses the three perspectives of education further explained in this essay, as are indicated in the Standard.

The values driving the Foundations of Education can be summarized in the following quote “To provide and promote values education at all levels of the educational system for the development of the human person committed to the building of a just and humane society and an independent and democratic nation’’

Furthermore, there are different approaches to the Foundations of the Education, some of these can be from the Education Psychological Foundations, which depend mostly on the behavioral sciences that study human interactions; there are also the Social Foundations of Education, addressed here in the explanation of the Standards, which focuses mainly in history and philosophy, social sciences (political science and sociology).

The objective of Foundations Studies is to apply these disciplinary resources in developing interpretive, normative, and critical perspectives on education, both within schools and outside of them.

As aforementioned, the Education study mainly focuses on the critical, normative and interpretive perspectives in analyzing, understanding and practicing educational theory. Some traits of these perspectives are:

  • Critical perspectives use normative interpretations to help students challenge their inquiry skills, develop the questioning of educational assumptions and identify arrangements and contradictions among educational policies and practices.

    Their objectives are sharpening students’ understanding and examination of educational application and achieving improvement in policy-oriented educational responsibility, schooling awareness within the environment culture.

  • Normative perspectives are more related to the value orientations of the different Education systems. These aid students in understanding the core guidelines, ethical behavior and visualizing the influences in educational norms in practice.

    They study the values within policy analysis and to which extent policymaking reflects values. At last, students are encouraged to assume their own values in education.

  • Interpretive perspectives use concepts from humanities and social sciences to examine, understand, and explain education. Studying the goals and effects of educational institutions, with special care on how its interpretation varies from historical and cultural perspectives.

In America the origins of the Education Foundation date back to 1986, when the Council for Learned Societies in Education, initially founded in 1980 by seven member associations: American Educational Studies Association (AESA), Comparative and International Education Society, History of Education Society, The John Dewey Society, Philosophy of Education Society, The Society for Educational Reconstruction, and the Society of Professors of Education, nowadays formed by twenty member organizations, issued in 1986 the Standards for Academic and Professional Instruction in Foundations of Education, Educational Studies, and Educational Policy Studies, then these standards were reviewed and in 2000 the council was renamed Council for Social Foundations in Education and reissued these standards

The main objective of the standards issued by the Foundation Council is to offer guidance regarding the concept, functions, and importance of study in the Foundations of Education to national educational and policymaking organizations, as higher education institutions, state education agencies, and others.

The Foundations of Education study uses, as mentioned above, a series of disciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives to understand how schools prepare young and adults to assume roles in society. It is intended to do this through analysing the connection between schools and their socializing mission.