Historically, the study of the Foundations of Education, or the Ancient Foundation began with the basic concept of being an integral part of the tribe, town of villate to which teachers, students and professionals belonged. More practical than theoretical, through a tell me show me, trial and error, primitive methodology.
In the Orient the goal of the Education was the preservation of social stability by impressing traditions and customs of morals, through an imitation and memorization ideology. Main exponents were the Egyptians, Indians and Chinese.
Whereas in the Occident the Foundations of Education came with Greek Education to promote development of individuality and personal welfare being harmonious with various aspects of human character. Main trends were two, the Spartan: focused on military development of citizens by physical training; and the Athenian: individual excellence of body and mind in a liberal education aiming at the perfect human ideal for public functions
Further in time and north, the Roman Education for Utilitarianism intended to extent Empire ideas, mostly through imitation methodology in primary, and literary exercises, speech and grammar.
Regarding the modern conceptions, the Italian individualistic humanism, focused on the rich to secure a full lived life and to be in touch with the ancient. A more diverse literature and mathematics was introduced. And the studies of texts and self- expression was encouraged. Proposed by Vittorino del Feltre.
The Northern or Social Humanism, aimed for social reform, using classical and religious literature (biblical), through individualized learning, motivation to mastery with praise and rewards, Proposed by Desiderius Erasmus. While the reformation of Martin Luther, also through religious moralism instructed in physical Education, math, history, science, had eventually a counter-reformation by the Christian Brothers, Jansenists, Jesuits based on unquestioning the church’s authority through obedience.
Later on, Education as a Formal discipline targeted the training of the Mind through rigorous exercises of the intellectual capacities, aiming at the mental, physical and moral character best formation. Besides memorization the sensation and reasoning was proposed mainly by John Locke. Other akin systems of Education were rationalism, which enabled man to think for itself, and a philosophical concept was added to the scientific, ethic and moral knowledge. By Jean Jacques Rousseau came afterwards with a more intellectual and holistic approach to naturalistic education in harmony with Nature to preserve the natural goodness of man.
The social studies as such came with Nationalistic or Patriotic conception of education, and this became more practical.
Education as Psychological development came to control growth and development through exponents as: PESTALOZZI (social-regeneration), FROEBEL (Child development), HERBART (Moral development), THORNDIKE (based on the fullest satisfaction of human wants).
After this came the Social Experimentalism to prepare a progressive rebuilding of the social order. Social Studies were widely included, analysing social conditions and problems.