Archive for November 7th, 2021

Can cochlear implantation improve neurocognition in the elderly?

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Völter Christiane1, Götze Lisa1, Müther Janine, Dazert Stefan1, Thomas Jan Peter1 1
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ruhr University Bochum,
St. Elisabeth-Hospital, Bleichstr. 15, 44787 Bochum, Germany

The association between cognition and hearing is well known. With regard to the growing number of older persons and the incidence of demential illness the question arises whether hearing rehabilitation might counteract cognitive decline in aging.

Material and Methods:

213 patients aged 67,78 years (mean, SD 9,52) suffering from severe to profound hearing loss and scheduled for cochlear implantation underwent a computer-based evaluation of neurocognitive functions prior to surgery. The visual based test battery (ALAcog) is composed of different subtests covering short- and long-term memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, attention, working memory and inhibition.

Results:

66 patients have been reassessed 6 months and 71 patients 12 months post implantation. Whereas most subtests improved after 6 months, long-term memory did not improve earlier than after 1 year (p = 0,00006). After 12 months neurocognition has significantly increased with regard to attention (p=0,00086), recall (p=0,00041), delayed recall (p =0,00069), inhibition (p = 0,0029), working memory (n-back= 0,023 and OSPAN-test p = 0,00001) as well as verbal fluency (p=0,00006). Executive functions improved the most. In general, improvement was statistically better for subjects with poor baseline results. Patients at the age of > 65 years improved in the same way as younger aged =<65 years. Conclusion: Cochlear implantation has a positive impact on cogni><65 years.

Conclusion:

Cochlear implantation has a positive impact on cognitive abilities, mostly on executive functions even in patients with lower preoperative performance and older age. Further studies have to show, whether hearing restoration has a long-term effect on cognition and might even prevent demential illness.

Mental Health Therapies & Motivational enhancement therapy (MET)

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Koziba Sebina
Evolve Syndicate, Botswana

Motivational enhancement therapy (MET) is a directive, person-centered approach to therapy that focuses on improving an individual’s motivation to change. Those who engage in selfdestructive behaviors may often be ambivalent or have little motivation to change such behaviors, despite acknowledging the negative impact of said behaviors on health, family life, or social functioning. The primary goal of MET is to help individuals overcome their ambivalence or resistance to behavior change. MET focuses on increasing intrinsic motivation by raising awareness of a problem, adjusting any self-defeating thoughts regarding the problem, and increasing confidence in one’s ability to change.

Instead of identifying a problem and telling a person in therapy what to do about it, the therapist encourages a person in therapy to make self-motivating statements that display a clear understanding of the problem and a resolve to change. The numerous mental health therapy techniques and therapies available today are used to tackle a wide variety of conditions such as depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and phobias, as well as borderline disorders, multiple personality disorder, and schizophrenia. These conditions can be treated, often successfully, with the help of psychotherapy and, sometimes, supplementary drug therapy.