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The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) – Chapter Three

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DISCLAIMER: THE FOLLOWING TRANSLATION IS FROM THE OPEN DOMAIN AND MAY CONTAIN SIGNIFICANT ERRORS. THE EDITING IS IN PROCESS AND PLEASE USE IT WITH CAUTION.

III. ATTACK BY STRATAGEM

1. Sun Tzu said: In the practical art of war, the best
thing of all is to take the enemy’s country whole and intact;
to shatter and destroy it is not so good. So, too, it is
better to recapture an army entire than to destroy it,
to capture a regiment, a detachment or a company entire
than to destroy them.

2. Hence to fight and conquer in all your battles
is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists
in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting.

3. Thus the highest form of generalship is to
balk the enemy’s plans; the next best is to prevent
the junction of the enemy’s forces; the next in
order is to attack the enemy’s army in the field;
and the worst policy of all is to besiege walled cities.

4. The rule is, not to besiege walled cities if it
can possibly be avoided. The preparation of mantlets,
movable shelters, and various implements of war, will take
up three whole months; and the piling up of mounds over
against the walls will take three months more.

5. The general, unable to control his irritation,
will launch his men to the assault like swarming ants,
with the result that one-third of his men are slain,
while the town still remains untaken. Such are the disastrous
effects of a siege.

6. Therefore the skillful leader subdues the enemy’s
troops without any fighting; he captures their cities
without laying siege to them; he overthrows their kingdom
without lengthy operations in the field.

7. With his forces intact he will dispute the mastery
of the Empire, and thus, without losing a man, his triumph
will be complete. This is the method of attacking by stratagem.

8. It is the rule in war, if our forces are ten
to the enemy’s one, to surround him; if five to one,
to attack him; if twice as numerous, to divide our army
into two.

9. If equally matched, we can offer battle;
if slightly inferior in numbers, we can avoid the enemy;
if quite unequal in every way, we can flee from him.

10. Hence, though an obstinate fight may be made
by a small force, in the end it must be captured
by the larger force.

11. Now the general is the bulwark of the State;
if the bulwark is complete at all points; the State will
be strong; if the bulwark is defective, the State will
be weak.

12. There are three ways in which a ruler can bring
misfortune upon his army:–

13. (1) By commanding the army to advance or to retreat,
being ignorant of the fact that it cannot obey.
This is called hobbling the army.

14. (2) By attempting to govern an army in the
same way as he administers a kingdom, being ignorant
of the conditions which obtain in an army. This causes
restlessness in the soldier’s minds.

15. (3) By employing the officers of his army
without discrimination, through ignorance of the
military principle of adaptation to circumstances.
This shakes the confidence of the soldiers.

16. But when the army is restless and distrustful,
trouble is sure to come from the other feudal princes.
This is simply bringing anarchy into the army, and flinging
victory away.

17. Thus we may know that there are five essentials
for victory:
(1) He will win who knows when to fight and when
not to fight.
(2) He will win who knows how to handle both superior
and inferior forces.
(3) He will win whose army is animated by the same
spirit throughout all its ranks.
(4) He will win who, prepared himself, waits to take
the enemy unprepared.
(5) He will win who has military capacity and is
not interfered with by the sovereign.

18. Hence the saying: If you know the enemy
and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a
hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy,
for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat.
If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will
succumb in every battle.

The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) – Chapter Three Tactics

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Chapter Three

Tactics

The lesson here is that the best strategy is to finish the test, rather than left some questions unanswered; to finish all the sections, rather than guess which one is the unscored; to finish all the question types, rather than left some. Also be sure to read all the choices before you select the correct answer rather than only read right answers. During the practice tests, when you only figure out why the answer is right, you are yet a good test taker, even you might be incidentally get answers right. If you can also find out why the wrong answers are confusingly wrong, you will get upper hands when you take the real test. By knowing why it is so, you will get steps ahead of other test takers.

Therefore, the test taker with the highest test score ranking above 170 mostly use this strategy, then the middle ranking around 150-170 only figure out the right answer when practicing. The person below 150 selects answer nothing but the intuition. Those people never settle down to ask why it is right or what cause it wrong. That is the worst strategy, no better than no strategy. You need to get each of the three sections of the LSAT ready, which takes a lot of time. Then you need to put them together, so that you will know the amount of time needed. The test takers without patience will take the test and the score will be very low and it will impact the average of the score reporting system, designed by the LSAC. It is a disaster. Therefore, if you want to ace the LSAT, you need to get used to all the question types and be at ease with them. You ace the LSAT without using too much of your energy on your test day—you are confident and calm; every question you see on test day is so familiar to you like your old friends. It will not take too much time to find the correct answer. Therefore, you will defeat the LSAT without doubt. You can win without exhaustion and irritation by the intensity and pressure of the test.

Thus the secret of the LSAT is: if you have more time than needed, then answer all the questions numerically. If you have just enough time to answer all the questions, you might think of skip around to do the easiest one in one page before turning your page. If you just have barely time to finish, you might think of skipping around and leave some hard questions unanswered first. If you have enough time, just get them all in; if you cannot answer questions in the allotted time, just make an educated guess. If you feel you have no idea of the questions, just skip it. So make sure you get all the easy ones right so as to get the overall higher score by answering tough questions tactically.(Or you will be eroded by the time second-by-second due to the large volume of the questions; You will win small and lose big.)

Wohhh, leaders need to oversee all the tests. Here the test takers need to consider all the strategies needed to ace each questions. The more the test taker considers the questions, the better the score will be. Otherwise, the score will drop like the rain.

Therefore, there are three situations which would weaken your score. If test takers who do not know when to eliminate the wrong and when to answer the right, they are dull ones. If test takers who take the test without knowing clearly what the tactics are to each question types, they will get confused during the test day. If the test takers do not fully prepared to the test and just want to try the luck, then “good luck” will never happen, even they will not believe it. This way, the test takers are confused and overwhelmed by the intensity of the test, so it make vicious circle of making them more nervous and disoriented, leading failure to the test.

In contrast, there are 5 secrets to guarantee higher scores. The test takers who know when they are ready to take the LSAT win. The ones who know the strength and weakness of the different questions types win. Those who understand the elimination and time allocation win. Those who have strong desire to get higher score win. Those who get more rest and more relax during the test win. Those who creatively answer each question win. The five factors above are the predictor of the result of the LSAT.

Therefore, knowing you and your enemy, you will still be cool even though there are hundreds of tests; knowing you without knowing your enemy, you will get 50-50 chance. If you do not know you or your enemy, you will be confused and exhausted wherever you are in the test.

The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) – Chapter Two Waging War

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Chapter Two

Waging War

On the real test day (only four times a year), you need the four sharpened 2-B or HB pencils, one watch or timer, eraser, ticket to the LSAT, and your snacks and drinks. As long as you have the logistics ready you can go and take the test with your confident out of the practice. When you go to a test less prepared, your patience will weaken, your brain will grow seemingly dull. When the intensity is high and the pressure is on the rise during the test, you will be overwhelmed and disoriented by that. If you are preparing without necessary practice, the test will drive you crazy due to the intensity of the test and long hour of mentally exercise. Specifically, when you do the third section before the break, the time and pressure will drive you crazy: you will get overwhelmed and exhausted, your brain will become dull and unclear, you will feel sick and abnormal, and all the tests will suddenly become a monster to you to scare you. If so, you might not get only the normal result you expected, even you are super smart. Therefore, the hasty and unpreparedness of test taker will lose whatsoever. We have never heard of anyone who are unprepared can ace the LSAT. If you do not know the disadvantages of you, you will not know or better use your strength of you in a whole.

So my point here is whoever, good at taking the test, never stop practicing or delay it more than twice, never take breaks more than 3 times during the full test. Mastering the time and making full use the resource you available during the test, then you do not have to worry about or complain the time and paper not enough.

You are frustrated by the lack of time and paper is due to the mental sickness of the test – long hour, super intensive exam. The long hour and intensity of the test cause test takes to be exhausted. Weakened body causes your brain to consume more of your energy, and thus impacts on your blood flow to react sharply or even normally. Therefore, you will become less confident and irritated by the fact. Then you will become more exhausted and more burn more energy viciously. The loss of time in the real test is at the ratio of 10: 3. The loss of your time in the real test means: you will not finish your test, you will not remember of any of the strategies, you will get a feeling of sickness of mentally ill and physically sick. All this will cause the test result much worse.

In addition, the wise test taker would take advantage of the real time allotted rather than time needed. It accretes by seconds. One second in the real test situation equals 20 seconds in the practice test. The energy exhausted in the test is equals 20 times of that in the practice test.

In order to ace the test, you need to adjust yourself to the best of yourself during the test. Besides, you also need to award yourself if you get higher score during the test, even the practice one. Reward is a integral part of the process of acing the exam. After each, including practice, test, you need to always remember to reward yourself. For examples, giving yourself a big meal, watching a favorite movie, or watching red sox game when you get a higher score each time. The test is deadly hard, even god knows it, so it is your challenge to practice. It is challenging, and thus it is rewarding as well. But you need you to practice and practice. Therefore, it is called acing the test while you are doing the test.

Besides, it is better to ace the LSAT in shorter time rather than longer.

In conclusion, the leader who knows the questions, and who understand the tactics and rules, will take full control of the test and drive it toward test taker’s advantage.

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DISCLAIMER: THE FOLLOWING TRANSLATION IS FROM THE OPEN DOMAIN AND MAY CONTAIN SIGNIFICANT ERRORS. THE EDITING IS IN PROCESS AND PLEASE USE IT WITH CAUTION.

II. WAGING WAR

1. Sun Tzu said: In the operations of war,
where there are in the field a thousand swift chariots,
as many heavy chariots, and a hundred thousand
mail-clad soldiers, with provisions enough to carry them
a thousand li, the expenditure at home and at the front,
including entertainment of guests, small items such as
glue and paint, and sums spent on chariots and armor,
will reach the total of a thousand ounces of silver per day.
Such is the cost of raising an army of 100,000 men.

2. When you engage in actual fighting, if victory
is long in coming, then men’s weapons will grow dull and
their ardor will be damped. If you lay siege to a town,
you will exhaust your strength.
3. Again, if the campaign is protracted, the resources
of the State will not be equal to the strain.

4. Now, when your weapons are dulled, your ardor damped,
your strength exhausted and your treasure spent,
other chieftains will spring up to take advantage
of your extremity. Then no man, however wise,
will be able to avert the consequences that must ensue.

5. Thus, though we have heard of stupid haste in war,
cleverness has never been seen associated with long delays.

6. There is no instance of a country having benefited
from prolonged warfare.

7. It is only one who is thoroughly acquainted
with the evils of war that can thoroughly understand
the profitable way of carrying it on.

8. The skillful soldier does not raise a second levy,
neither are his supply-wagons loaded more than twice.

9. Bring war material with you from home, but forage
on the enemy. Thus the army will have food enough
for its needs.

10. Poverty of the State exchequer causes an army
to be maintained by contributions from a distance.
Contributing to maintain an army at a distance causes
the people to be impoverished.

11. On the other hand, the proximity of an army causes
prices to go up; and high prices cause the people’s
substance to be drained away.

12. When their substance is drained away, the peasantry
will be afflicted by heavy exactions.

13,14. With this loss of substance and exhaustion
of strength, the homes of the people will be stripped bare,
and three-tenths of their income will be dissipated;
while government expenses for broken chariots, worn-out horses,
breast-plates and helmets, bows and arrows, spears and shields,
protective mantles, draught-oxen and heavy wagons,
will amount to four-tenths of its total revenue.

15. Hence a wise general makes a point of foraging
on the enemy. One cartload of the enemy’s provisions
is equivalent to twenty of one’s own, and likewise
a single picul of his provender is equivalent to twenty
from one’s own store.

16. Now in order to kill the enemy, our men must
be roused to anger; that there may be advantage from
defeating the enemy, they must have their rewards.

17. Therefore in chariot fighting, when ten or more chariots
have been taken, those should be rewarded who took the first.
Our own flags should be substituted for those of the enemy,
and the chariots mingled and used in conjunction with ours.
The captured soldiers should be kindly treated and kept.

18. This is called, using the conquered foe to augment
one’s own strength.

19. In war, then, let your great object be victory,
not lengthy campaigns.

20. Thus it may be known that the leader of armies
is the arbiter of the people’s fate, the man on whom it
depends whether the nation shall be in peace or in peril.

 

 

The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) — Chapter One Planning

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Chapter One

Planning

The secret of LSAT is important for your application to the law schools. It is a determining factor of whether you will win or lose when applying to the law school, and thus cannot be neglected.

The secret of LSAT is governed by five factors: Law, Heaven, Earth, Leader, and maintenance. The Law is the way in which the LSAC conducts the test. The Haven means the settings of the test. The Earth means the derivatives of the test. Leader means the test taker with the virtue of wisdom, sincerely, benevolence, bravery and discipline. The Maintenance consists of the scheduling, relaxing, timing, logistics, and et cetera. These five determining factors are so important that the one who knows it wins, and the one who knows nothing about will not win. Thus you need to pay more attention on it and ask yourself the following questions before you take the test.

Which test taker has more discipline?

Which test taker has more capability?

Who can maneuver the environment and different settings of the test?

Whose practice is more systematic?

Which test taker is good at the test?

Which test taker is good at timing?

By examining those questions, we (or yourself) can predict whether you will beat the crap out of LSAT.

By test takers who take the advise would ace the LSAT; who without taking note of it will definitely lose.

You have to be consistence with this strategy. Then for awhile practicing this strategy, you will get used to it and then it is becoming more powerful, thereof helping you to ace the most difficult test. By learning the strategy, you will also be at ease with the law school exams after you are in.

The LSAT, in a word, is deception. When the argument is in flaw, it asks you to strengthen it. When it is solid, you are asked to weaken so. When it seems difficult to understand, it asks very simple questions, vice versa. Thus the test takers need to use the solid and systematic training to conquer it. Use the wisdom to beat it. Use the principle derived from the practice to beat the variations of the test. Use your strength to tackle the test’s weakness. Use your timing skill to skip around to find the weakest point of the test to guarantee the easy points. Use your confident to surpass others without the preparedness. Prepare the test thoroughly to stand out than others. When you do not understand the questions or the subjects thereof, just skip it. Attack the test where you prepared most, and skip the questions you had most trouble with. It, all the secret of the LSAT, is unprecedented.

Before you take the test, whenever practicing, showing you are ready, you will be better off when you do the real test; whenever practicing with negative result,

you have less chance to get better result on the test day. More practice is better than less practice, more calculation is better than less, let alone no practice or no calculation at all. By calculating the practice result, we can predict who will get 180 and who will get at least 120 (everyone will at least get the minimum 120.)

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DISCLAIMER: THE FOLLOWING TRANSLATION IS FROM THE OPEN DOMAIN AND MAY CONTAIN SIGNIFICANT ERRORS. THE EDITING IS IN PROCESS AND PLEASE USE IT WITH CAUTION.

The Art of War

By Sun Tzu

Translated by Lionel Giles

Chapter One. Laying Plans

1. Sun Tzu said: The art of war is of vital importance to the State.

2. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected.

3. The art of war, then, is governed by five constant factors, to be taken into account in one’s deliberations, when seeking to determine the conditions obtaining in the field.

4. These are: (1) The Moral Law; (2) Heaven; (3) Earth; (4) The Commander; (5) Method and discipline.

5,6. The Moral Law causes the people to be in complete accord with their ruler, so that they will follow him regardless of their lives, undismayed by any danger.

7. Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat, times and seasons.

8. Earth comprises distances, great and small; danger and security; open ground and narrow passes; the chances of life and death.

9. The Commander stands for the virtues of wisdom, sincerely, benevolence, courage and strictness.

10. By method and discipline are to be understood the marshaling of the army in its proper subdivisions, the graduations of rank among the officers, the maintenance of roads by which supplies may reach the army, and the control of military expenditure.

11. These five heads should be familiar to every general: he who knows them will be victorious; he who knows them not will fail.

12. Therefore, in your deliberations, when seeking to determine the military conditions, let them be made the basis of a comparison, in this wise:–

13. (1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued with the Moral law? (2) Which of the two generals has most ability? (3) With whom lie the advantages derived from Heaven and Earth? (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced? (5) Which army is stronger? (6) On which side are officers and men more highly trained? (7) In which army is there the greater constancy both in reward and punishment?

14. By means of these seven considerations I can forecast victory or defeat.

15. The general that hearkens to my counsel and acts upon it, will conquer: let such a one be retained in command! The general that hearkens not to my counsel nor acts upon it, will suffer defeat:–let such a one be dismissed!

16. While heading the profit of my counsel, avail yourself also of any helpful circumstances over and beyond the ordinary rules.

17. According as circumstances are favorable, one should modify one’s plans.

18. All warfare is based on deception.

19. Hence, when able to attack, we must seem unable; when using our forces, we must seem inactive; when we are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away; when far away, we must make him believe we are near.

20. Hold out baits to entice the enemy. Feign disorder, and crush him.

21. If he is secure at all points, be prepared for him. If he is in superior strength, evade him.

22. If your opponent is of choleric temper, seek to irritate him. Pretend to be weak, that he may grow arrogant.

23. If he is taking his ease, give him no rest. If his forces are united, separate them.

24. Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected.

25. These military devices, leading to victory, must not be divulged beforehand.

26. Now the general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple ere the battle is fought. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand. Thus do many calculations lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat: how much more no calculation at all! It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose.

The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT)

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The Art of War and Law School Admission Test (LSAT)

Sun Tzu is one of the greatest strategist in Ancient China, Han Dynasty, and his book the Art of War is also the oldest war book in the world. It heritages until now and there are numerous world leaders using it, it has been translated to hundreds of languages worldwide…. All the facts is that there is the treasure of the world and therefore should be available to the global citizens. It is very short and very easy to read if you are Chinese, even it is written in a traditional way. It is very easy to read even if you are foreigners, it is not a problem either. I will show what I learned what he told me through his words, representing of the wisdom of the world assets.

I am so delighted to be born in Chinese and educated in different countries so as to be able to read this concise but meaningful work by Sun Tzu (aka Sun Zi). Success by itself has no meaning to my life but help others to success is better. I am going to give you the translated version of the book in a way in which law school applicants can use it to launch the Art of War to ace the LSAT.

Gear back to study from the study

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Now the semester has been finished and the school is in recess. However, the job has not been done and thus needs to continue the course. The next thing for me is to tackle the LSAT which has not be designed as it used to be. Then the question comes down to how long it will last before it sends me to where I want to be.

Questions have been escalated to a new height of the confusion and discrimination.

Questions have been created to the people who have very boxed and restricted way of thinking.

This is so called LSAT with Logical Reasoning, Logical Games, and Comprehensive Reading. No one could answer the questions without the “sane” in the way in which the “insane” is not available to the people dreaming to pass.

Amartya Sen’s Development As Freedom

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Excerpt:

“… like the life of rich people will be your life. But there is no hope of immortality by wealth….
What should I do with that by which I do not become immortal?”

…wanting more income or wealth. This is not because income and wealth are desirable for their own sake, but because, typically, they are admirable general-purpose means for having more freedom to lead the kind of lives we have reason to value.

The ends and means of development require examination and scrutiny fro a fuller understanding of the development process…

p16

But political liberty and civil freedoms are directly important on their own, and do not have to be justified indirectly in terms of their efforts on the economy.

pg 17

Unfreedom can arise either through inadequate processes or through inadequate opportunities that some people have for achieving what they minimally would like to achieve.

p 20

There are good reasons for seeing poverty as a deprivation of basic capabilities, rather than merely as low income. Deprivation of elementary capabilities can be reflected

p 24

…I have been concentrating on a very elementary freedom: the ability to survive rather than succumb to premature mortality.

… the freedom-centered perspective has a generic similarity to the common concern with “quality of life,” which too concentrates on the way human life goes (perhaps even the choices on has) and not just on the resources or income that a person commands.The focusing on the quality of life and on substantive freedoms, rather than just on income or wealth, may look like something of a departure from the established traditions of economics, and in a sense it is (especially if comparisons are made with some of the more austere income-centered analysis that can be found in contemporary economics.)

p25-26

The relation of the market mechanism to freedom and thus to economic development raises questions of at least two quite distinct types, which need to be clearly distinguished. First, a denial of opportunities of transaction, through arbitrary controls, can be a source of unfreedom in itself….second, …markets typically work to expand income and wealth and economic opportunities that people have.

p 27

The worst violations of the norm against child labor come typically from the virtual slavery of children in disadvantaged families and from their being forced into exploitative employment (as opposed to being free and possibly going to school).

p30

Valuations are, of course, involved in all such approaches (including utilitarianism, libertarianism, and other approaches…), even though they are often made implicitly. Those who prefer a mechanical index, without the need to be explicit about what values are being used and why, have a tendency to grumble that the freedom-based approach requires that valuations be explicitly made.

p 31

The more serious issue, rather, concerns the source of authority and legitimacy.

p31-32

There is an inescapable valuational problem involved in deciding what to choose if and when it turns out that some parts of tradition cannot be maintained along with economic or social changes that may be needed for other reasons. it is a choice that the people involved have to face and assess. … lies in the basic importance of human freedom. … one that is accepted there are strong implications on what can or cannot be done in the name of tradition.

p32

…in the freedom-oriented perspective the liberty of all to participate in deciding what traditions to observe cannot be ruled out by the national or local “guardians”… . The pointer to any real conflict between the preservation of tradition and the advantages of modernity calls for a participatory resolution, not for a unilateral rejection of modernity in favor of tradition by political rulers, or religious authorities, or anthropological admirers of the legacy of the past.

p36

…expansion of freedom is viewed as both (I) the primary end and (2) the principal means of development. They can be called respectively the “constitutive role” and the “instrumental role” of freedom in development.

p78

Key Words on Work hard

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Quotation from someone sometime somewhere.

“… deploy…global know-how and talents …, with … needs, in …. industry, and with …. goal(s).”

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